The previous studies on the gymnastic societies of the Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia did not seriously deal with the types of physical exercise practiced therein. It may be assumed that is due to a lack of the information preserved thereabout.
For these reasons, in this study we searched for the findings about the types of physical exercise applied in the private training schools where some skills (fencing, swimming, archery, horse riding) were learnt and practiced, then in the societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) as well as in the chivalrous societies. The aim of this study was to determine the types and forms of physical exercise practiced in the private training schools, societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) and chivalrous societies of the Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia. The historical method was applied in this paper.
In this paper, we presented the results, i.e. the types of physical exercise practiced in the private training schools (Schools of Fencing, Steva Todorović’s School of Painting, Askanius Sedlmayer’s School of Gymnastics), societies for physical exercising (gymnastics) and chivalrous societies (Belgrade Society for Gymnastics and Fighting, Belgrade Gymnastic Society “Sokol”, Civil Gymnastic Society “Dušan Silni”, Sokol societies).
Based on the comparative analysis of the types of the apparatuses used and the exercise methods applied it has been determined that private schools mainly implemented the Turner system using most of Jahn’s Turner apparatuses. However, in the societies for physical exercising, in addition to the Turner exercise method, the Swedish system of physical exercise was partially applied as well.
Upon the appearance and acceptance of the Sokol idea, the application of the Sokol training method also started in the established Sokol societies, and soon afterwards in the army, and primary and secondary schools as well.