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Dorota Murzyn

Social Fund; – member state level – the level of the European Regional Development Fund [ERDF] programme with urban-related investment priorities, ring-fencing 5% of funding; – member state level – implementation level, with the involvement of Integrated Territorial Investments as instruments for bottom-up urban actions and the involvement of Community – led local development in urban areas; – local level – project level, where cities have the opportunity to cooperate across borders. During the 2007–2013 programming period

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Krystyna Ilmurzyńska

Ursynów managed the estate on its own and actually played the role of local government ( Rogiński 2017 : 42). At the beginning the residents’ activity focused on the organisation of the flats followed by rearrangement balconies and verandas, as well as fencing and planting small gardens. Garden fences that became the borders between private and public space were built informally by individuals ( Pańkow 2016 : 315) and tolerated by the cooperative. Spatial activity focused on greenery as some community gardens were established within the pedestrian path areas

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Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska

’ association. The above examples demonstrate not only the fomenting of tensions and group conflicts, but also the emergence, based upon shared interests of collective entities, of something akin to ‘parkinghoods’, which not only recognise each other internally and integrate in the course of everyday practices, but also develop the ability to recognise and ‘mark’ outside parkers. The most frequent consequence of the emergence of this type of ‘group parking interests’ is fencing of common spaces. An increasingly popular practice is putting up fences, barriers and gates