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Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Frequent Challenge / Bazocelularni karcinom: čest izazov

Abstract

Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing, malignant epidermal tumor predominantly affecting sun exposed areas in Caucasians, accounting for up to 80% of all diagnosed skin cancers, with a rising incidence. Chronic UV radiation, in association with constitutional factors, plays the main role in its etiology. Inappropriate activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway seems to be a key pathogenesis mechanism. Basal cell carcinoma metastases are extremely rare, but it is a locally invasive tumor that can cause significant destruction of the surrounding tissues, with their functional and esthetic impairment. There are four main clinical types of basal cell carcinoma, although clinical classification is of poor prognostic significance. Preselection of suspicious lesions and treatment planning include noninvasive diagnostic techniques: dermoscopy, confocal microscopy and ultrasoud imaging, yet histopathology remains the “gold standard” of basal cell carcinoma diagnosis. In terms of the histological growth pattern, which is essential for the prognosis, basal cell carcinoma may be divided into circumscribed or diffuse types. Surgical excision is considered to be a first line treatment option, but there are numerous less invasive treatment modalities for low-risk basal cell carcinoma. Prevention strategies are focused on behavioral modifications, regular follow up and use of chemopreventive agents in high-risk patients.

Open access
Risk Factors for Early Postoperative Complications after Surgery for Crohn's Disease

Summary

The aim of this study was to show the influence of various risk factors on early postoperative complications following surgery for Crohn’s disease (CD). In this review, an online internet database was searched, and also systematic review of the literature was performed. Three different studies from different countries were analyzed and compared with the results obtained in our University Clinic of Digestive Surgery - Skopje. The first review shows the influence of positive resection margins in CD on septical complications occurrence in patients undergoing ileocolic resection for CD at the Tel Aviv Medical Centre - Israel. The second review shows the risk factors for complications after bowel surgery in Korean patients with CD using data from the Asan Medical Centre - Seul, Korea. The third review shows that the delay of surgery is associated with inferior postoperative outcome in patients treated for perforating Crohn’s ileitis, and the study was conducted using data from the medical records of patients treated at the Department of Surgery at the University of Regensburg, Germany. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the most common risk factors on early postoperative complications in patients that underwent surgery for Crohn’s disease in a five-year period at the University Clinic of Digestive Surgery in Skopje, Macedonia and compared them with the results in the aforementioned articles.

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Hepato-renal Syndrome: Etiopathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

ABSTRACT

Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) involves reversible renal failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis or acute liver failure. The aim of the study was to determine the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of hepatorenal syndrome and to emphasise the clinical importance of early detection and timely treatment of patients with this condition. Th e one-year incidence rate of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with liver cirrhosis is 18-20%. Th e risk factors for the development of hepatorenal syndrome include the following: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, nephrotoxic drugs, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hyponatraemia. The primary plan of treatment is a liver transplantation, while a secondary plan of treatment is the use of a vasoconstrictor in conjunction with albumin. Early diagnosis and prompt appropriate treatment can significantly reduce the mortality rate of patients with hepatorenal syndrome.

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Risk Factors For Development Of Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

Abstract

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a severe form of acute pancreatitis that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, an adequate initial treatment of patients who present with acute pancreatitis (AP) based on correct interpretation of early detected laboratory and clinical abnormalities may have a significant positive impact on the disease course.

The aim of the study was to determine patient- and initial treatment-related risk factors for the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

For the purpose of this study a case-control design was chosen, including adult patients treated for AP in the surgical Intensive Care Unit (sICU) of Clinical Center of Kragujevac, from January 2006 to January 2011. The cases (n=63) were patients who developed ANP, while the controls (n=63) were patients with AP without the presence of pancreatic necrosis. The controls were randomly selected from a study sample after matching with the cases by age and sex.

Significant association with the development of ANP was found for the presence of comorbidity (adjusted OR 6.614 95%CI 1.185-36.963), and the use of somatostatin (adjusted OR 7.460, 95%CI 1.162-47.833) and furosemide (adjusted OR 2710.57, 95%CI 1.996-56.035) started immediately upon admission to the sICU.

This study suggests that comorbidities, particularly the presence of serious cardio-vascular disease, can increase the risk for development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The probability for the development of ANP could be reduced by the avoidance of the initial use of loop diuretics and somatostatin.

Open access
Progressive Disseminated Superficial Actinic Porokeratosis: a Case Report with a Family History in Three Generations

Abstract

Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis is the most common form of porokeratosis in adults, which develops in the third or fourth decade of life, but may also occur later or earlier, more frequently in females, particularly in countries with high sun exposure. Lesions are numerous, uniform, superficial with central atrophy, demarcated by a distinct peripheral ridge, and usually found on sun exposed areas or elsewhere. The disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition. We present a 57-year-old retired woman. Her initial skin changes, affecting the face, developed in her thirties, and they have not changed their features since. In the following years, changes developed on the extensor surface of her arms and legs, with more prominent erythema, and then also on other parts of the body, including palms and soles, presenting as dark brown pigmented patches. Her mother had similar changes, and her daughter, who lives abroad, also has them. On examination, the patient presented with facial lesions, patches 2-3 mm wide, with peripheral hyperpigmentation and a pale center. There were multiple, 2-3 mm wide, dark brown lesions on the extremities and trunk. The lesions were either flat or with atrophic center with darker filiform corneal rim. Pathohistolgical examination revealed a "cornoid lamella", which is pathognomonic for the diagnosis of porokeratosis. Auxiliary diagnostic methods were also used - dermoscopy and Gentian violet staining. The patient was advised to avoid sun exposure and to apply photoprotective sunscreens. In conclusion, this is a case report of a disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis that affected three generations of a family. Our patient developed lesions on palms and soles as well. A review of available world literature shows that this is the second case report of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis with palmoplantar involvement.

Open access
Skin Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections among Patients with HIV infection/AIDS referred at the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade: a Case Series of 38 Patients

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be associated with a wide spectrum of dermatological disorders. This study reports the prevalence of dermatologic diseases and sexually transmitted infections among 38 HIV-infected adults who consecutively sought treatment at the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade. Patients were referred by their primary HIV providers between January 2011 and June 2012. More than 80% of patients were men who have sex with men. The most prevalent diseases were anogenital warts (36.8%) and syphilis (34.2%), followed by folliculitis and dermatophyte infections (7.9% each). Thirty-four patients (89.5%) were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before the first visit to the dermatologist. Although, the pattern of skin disorders was consistent with literature data, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among our patients was rather peculiar. These facts point to the need for education of sexually active persons with HIV about the consequences of sexually transmitted infections, risks of transmission of drug resistant HIV strains, as well as safe sex practice and consistent condom use.

Open access
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Comorbidities in Patients with Plaque-Type Psoriasis Never Treated with Systemic Antipsoriatic Drugs: a Case-Control Study

Abstract

Previous studies have shown a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases among patients with psoriasis compared to non-psoriatics. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of systemic antipsoriatic drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psoriasis and these comorbidities, comparing untreated patients with psoriasis and population-based control non-psoriatic patients. A hospital-based case-control study included 122 patients with plaque-type psoriasis and 122 age- and gender-matched controls. Patients who ever received systemic antipsoriatic drugs were excluded. There were no significant differences between psoriatic patients and controls regarding the prevalence of hypertension (p=0.311), coronary heart disease (p=0.480), diabetes (p=0.641), myocardial infarction (p=0.71), stroke (2.4% vs. 2.4%, p=1.00) and metabolic syndrome (p=0.764). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in patients with psoriasis and controls was 41.8% and 28.7%, respectively (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04-3.04, p=0.032). Furthermore, significant differences were observed in mean triglyceride levels (p=0.013). Smoking was significantly more often reported in psoriatic patients compared to controls. Patients with psoriasis also had a higher mean BMI (26.24, SD 4.42) compared with controls (24.73, SD 3.86), p=0.005. Psoriasis showed a statistically significant association with BMI obesity classification [χ2(4)=11.560, p=0.02]. The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities was not significantly higher in patients with plaquetype psoriasis who were never treated with systemic antipsoriatic drugs, compared to population-based non-psoriatic controls. Our data suggest that systemic antipsoriatic drugs may play an important role in the development of these comorbidities. However, this study confirms that untreated psoriasis patients have three major modifiable increased cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

Open access
Etiology and pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma

Abstract

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer among Caucasians. It generally occurs on sun-exposed areas of the body, mostly on the head and neck (80%), trunk (15%), rarely on arms and legs. Basal cell carcinoma is a good example of a disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a dual role in the development of BCC: it causes DNA damage and immunosuppression. UVA and UVB rays damage the DNA via various mechanisms. UVB radiation directly damages DNA within skin cells, causing cytosine → thymine mutations at dipyrimidine sites, whereas UVA radiation is 10.000 times less mutagenic, but it is significantly more present in the natural UV radiation. Also, UVA photons have lower energy than UVB photons and do not induce mutations. UV radiation exerts immune suppression by decreasing the antigen presenting cells ability and by producing immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Mediators of UV-induced immunosuppression are DNA and cis-urocanic acid. Several studies showed a significant association between the development of BCC and sun-exposure during childhood and adolescence, and a strong relation with family history of skin cancer. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancers by three times, while the risk is proportional to the radiation dose. Chemical carcinogens, such as arsenic, tar, psoralen, and pesticides, increase risks for nonmelanoma skin cancers, predominantly for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Regarding genetic predisposition, there is glutathione S-transferase (GST) as an important part of cellular defense against endogenous and exogenous chemicals. Several polymorphisms in GST family members have been associated with impaired detoxification, thus influencing the risk for some cancers, including nonmelanoma skin cancers. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in detoxification of photosensitizing agents, and thus involved in BCC carcinogenesis. PTCH is a tumor suppressor gene first identified in patients with Gorlin syndrome. Abnormal activation of this gene and its pathways result in various types of tumorigenesis. BCC is associated with homozygous PTCH gene deletion. With regard to acquired genetic mutations, it was found that aggressive BCCs are significantly associated with increased p53 protein expression, probably representing the mutated form, although that assertion could not be established with certainty. Considering the apparently limited contribution of DNA damage and chromosome instability to the expression of BCC phenotype, the relevance of p53 mutations for BCC growth remains to be demonstrated. Data on the role of Bcl-2 gene family in the development of BCC are scarce. It is unclear whether Bcl-2 has a functional role in the development of BCC, or it only indicates the level of gene expression in tumor stem cells. Activation of Ras gene may play an important role during early stages in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers, and it is often found on UV-exposed skin in BCC, actinic keratosis and SCC. Concerning immunologic factors, studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is the critical mast cell product involved in ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression: mast cells contain high quantities of TNF-α which is released after activation; the level of TNF-α is increased in the skin exposed to UV radiation disrupting the morphology and function of Langerhans cells, the principal antigen-presenting cells of the skin. An animal study suggests that the degree of susceptibility to ultraviolet-B-induced local immunosuppression depends on TNF-α level within the epidermis after UVB. It has been established that mast cell-derived histamine stimulates prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production from keratinocytes. PGE2 alters the cytokine balance in favor of the immunosuppressive interleukin-10 (IL-10) against the immunostimulatory IL-12; histamine also increases suppressor T-cell function by binding to the H2 receptors, which in turn release higher levels of immune suppressive cytokines including IL-10 and induce apoptosis of antigen-presenting cells. All this results in a shift of the immune response from T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine profile to T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine profile, inhibiting antigen-presenting cells to induce antitumor activity.

Open access
The Influence of HPV16, Smoking and Coitarche in the Development of Cervical Dysplasia in the Stage where Conization is the Treatment of Choice

SUMMARY

The high incidence of premalignant lesions of the cervix in our country and worldwide was the primary aim for conducting this study so as to establish whether HPV16, smoking and coitarche (first intercourse) are significant factors in the developmental stages of cervical dysplasia in the case of which the conization is a surgical treatment of choice.

In the period of three years, one hundred and thirty-six women from the Republic of Macedonia with histologically confirmed CIN were examined as well as 50 control cases with normal cytology and colposcopic findings. The aforesaid epidemiologic factors examined in this study were obtained through special questionnaires. The resulting material was statistically processed to determine whether these factors are risk factors for development of higher stages of cervical dysplasia.

The obtained statistical analysis showed that HPV16, smoking and coitarche under the age of 18 are very important factors in the development of higher stages of CIN where conization is indicated as a treatment of choice.

Our study demonstrated that coitarche under the age of 18, smoking and infection with HPV16 as the most common high risk HPV in our country are the most important factors in causing and development of high grade CIN, where conization is necessary as a treatment of choice. Thus, socially-based organized screening can be of great benefit in early diagnosis and adequate treatment of this highly prevalent disease.

Open access
Changes in the Incidence of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - 2000-2010 - Our Experience

Changes in the Incidence of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - 2000-2010 - Our Experience

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare tumors that involve abnormal growth of cells inside a woman's uterus.

The aim of the paper was to report the incidence of GTD in the University Hospital Center during a ten-year period.

The retrospective analysis involved all medical records of women who were treated for GTD in our clinic. Histopathologic report of abortion specimen with gestational trophoblastic disease was registered and we calculated the incidence of births, abortions and total pregnancies.

There were 104 patients who were treated in our clinic. The overall incidence of GTD was 1,26 per 1000 deliveries.

According to our experience, a lower socio economic status may be a risk factor for GTD, apart from younger age, at least one delivery and more abortions in anamnesis.

Open access