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Yanko T. Iliev, Sasha A. Kristeva and Maria G. Prancheva


The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic.

The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria - it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

Open access

Valeria T. Tananska

. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics 2010;6(1):78-95. 5. Yan W, Yu W, Than S, et al. Salivaomics knowledge base, Abstract 1179. Presentation at the 37th Annual meeting and exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research. Dallas (TX); 5 April 2008. 6. Turner RJ, Sugiya H. Salivary glands and saliva. Understanding salivary fluid and protein secretion. Oral Diseases 2002;8:3-11. 7. Perez DM. The adrenergic receptors in the 21st century

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Aleksandra Visnovič Poredoš and Marko Kolšek

seek help, etc.). The information about the website was spread by means of mass media, several websites, and some public events and exhibitions. As the screening method for identification of hazardous or harmful drinking, the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) was used, which contains 10 questions and is considered as the gold standard questionnaire to screen for hazardous, harmful drinking and alcohol addiction ( 27 ). It has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the primary health care. Drinkers were classified

Open access

Zbigniew Marczyński, Sławomira Nowak, Jerzy Jambor and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda


Introduction: The general Hildebrand-Scatchard theory of solubility supplemented by Fedors’ solubility parameter δ12 was used to estimate the real solubility by −log x2 (log of the mole fraction) of phytochemicals contained in Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum. Surface activity of aqueous solution of extracts was determined and quantified – solubilizing capabilities of solutions of cexp. ≥cmc in relation to cholesterol particle size of Ø=1.00 mm, as well as of ketoprofen were defined.

Objective: The calculated value −log x2 collated with the polarity of extraction medium εM allows to estimate the optimal solubility of phytochemicals that determine the viscosity of the aqueous extract of dandelion and above all its surface activity and the ability to solubilize lipophilic therapeutic agents (ketoprofen).

Methods: Viscosity of water model solutions of dandelion extracts and exhibition solutions after the effective micellar solubilization of cholesterol and ketoprofen was measured using Ubbelohde viscometer in accordance with the Polish Standard. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of extract and exhibition solutions after solubilization of cholesterol and ketoprofen was measured according to the Polish Standard with stalagmometric method.

Results: The calculated factual solubility, and mainly the determined and calculated hydrodynamic size mean, that despite the complex structure of the micelle, it solubilizes cholesterol (granulometric grain of diameter Ø=1.00 mm) and ketoprofen (state of technological fragmentation) in equilibrium conditions. Equilibrium solubilization of ketoprofen also occurs in an environment of model gastric juice (0.1 mol HCl).

Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that after the administration (and/or dietary supplementation) with Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum, the physiological parameters of gastric juice would not be measured and its presence (phytosurfactant) in the body of the duodenum (bile A) increases abilities of solubilizing lipophilic therapeutic agents and cholesterol accounting for its use in the treatment of liver diseases and cholesterol gall bladder stones.

Open access

Jerzy Kosiewicz

Foul Play in Sport as a Phenomenon Inconsistent with the Rules, yet Acceptable and Desirable

Author considers assumptions related to foul play in sport as a phenomenon, that affect the body, psyche, or relationships - various social involvements, conditionings, and determinants of those involved with that particular form of athletic activity. This includes fouls committed on and off the field, as well as those not even related to a particular game. Our considerations include fouls of a verbal or acoustic nature; fouls in the form of printed materials; those in the form of visual commentary in films, TV shows, Internet appearances, whether in feature films, dramatized documentaries, documentaries or reports presented in a different publications, festivals, exhibitions, during which co-participants, adversaries or competitors make comments on past or future events during or beyond the competition.

Fouls in sport, particularly those committed by athletes during competition, will always be inconsistent with the accepted rules of the game, that is, with the official regulations. Fouls will also always influence - in more or less annoying, depressing, painful or even tragic ways - the fate and the health of athletes.

No logical - conditional, cause and effect - connection exists between a foul and the rules. Neither the need for nor praise of foul play can stem from the regulations. Yet people directly associated with the sport tolerate it because there is a widespread, quiet acquiescence of such play. Foul play is strongly opposed by supporters of the fair play principle, by those who do not regard sports competition as a phenomenon that can be considered independently beyond moral good and evil.

Foul play is seen also as a desirable phenomenon, when inter alia, regardless of the various penalties imposed on players and team, it helps - in the final balance of losses and benefits - to achieve the planned success. Moreover, it is worth adding that, for instance, the so-called "good foul" in basketball enables one to stop the game clock, the so-called pure-play time of the referee. This creates the possibility of obtaining at least one more point (for a possible 3-point shot from a distance) than the team that executes its two one-point penalty shots granted for the offense (that is, "good foul").

Foul play may also enhance the course of the sports spectacle, and encourage spectators to cheer more frequently. This is particularly important when professional athletic contests are treated as a form of business. The dramatization of foul play as a creation of "game" within a game can also be an additional attraction of the competition; foul play might be used as sophisticated and spectacular trickery, that dismays and hurts in its pragmatic-aesthetic construction, both the referee and the opponent.

Foul play in sports has so many forms and will probably never lose its popular and sometimes spectacular character. Knowing that, everything should be done to protect players from bothersome health, interpersonal, and cultural disablements resulting from foul play.

Open access

Slavko Simunic, Kresimir Glavina, Nada Besenski and Ratimira Klaric-Custovic

. Radiologija. Hebrang A, Klarić-žustović R, editors. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada Zagreb; 2007. Šimunić S, Glavina K, Lovrenčić M. Radiology. Hebrang A, Klarić-žustović R. Radiologija, editor. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada Zagreb, 2007. Coll Antropol 2007; 31 : 641-4. Izložba. Otkriće rentgenskih zraka 1895-1995" [Exhibition, Discovery of x-Ray, 1895-1995]. Zagreb 14.12.1995 - 18.02.1996. Zagreb: Tehnički muzej Zagreb [Technical Museum Zagreb]; 1995. Pavcnik D. 60 years of the Slovenian Association

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Wiesław Pięta and Aleksandra Pięta

Jahre DTTB . Frankfurt am Main: DTTB. Siegman, J. (2005). Jewish Sports Legends (fourth edition) . Virginia: Potomac Books, Inc Washington D. C. Slobodzian, V. (2005). 80 let ceskoslovenskeho stolniho tenisu . Praha: V. Slobodzian - SPOZIA. Szabó, L. (1993). Jews in Hungarian Sports - exhibition of Museum of Physical Education and Sports Budapest /Jehudim basport hahungary: tarubat hamuzeon hahungary lehinuh gufni vesport/ . [org. Csilla Siklódi]. Tel Aviv: Iriya Tel Aviv

Open access

Douglas Turco, Dimitra Papadimitrou and Serkan Berber

). Assessing the impacts of hallmark events: Conceptual and research issues. Journal of Travel Research , 23(1), 2-11. Scott, A. K. S., Turco, D. M. (2007). VFRs as a segment of the sport event tourist market. Journal of Sport and Tourism , 12(1), 41-52. Smith, A. (2005). Reimaging the city: the value of sport initiatives. Annals of Tourism Research , 32(1), 217-236. Tang, Q., Turco, D. M. (2001). A profile of high-value event tourists. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management , 3(2), 33

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Rolf Kretschmann and Udo Von Grabowiecki

-Lethmate. An Exhibition by the German Sport Museum in Cologne (pp. 22-31). Köln: Koordinierungsbüro Deutsches Sportmuseum Köln/ Coordination Bureau of the German Sport Museum in Cologne. Lämmer, M. (1986). Sport und Kunst in der griechischen Antike/ Sport and Art in Ancient Greece. In Galerie der Stadt Stuttgart (Ed.), Kunst und Sport. Malerei, Graphik und Plastik des 20. Jahrhunderts in Baden-Württemberg /Art and Sport. Paintings, Graphic Art and Plastics of the 20th Century in Baden-Württemberg/ (pp. 21-28). Stuttgart: Edition Cantz

Open access

M. Samir, M. A. Amin, A. O. Hassan, A. M. Merwad and M. A. I. Awadallah

References A MANY, M.M.M.V.S. (2007): Parasites of some imported fish. Thesis, Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt AMER, O.H., EL-ASHRAM, A.M.M. SHAGAR, G. I.A. (2007): Studies on the internal parasitic helminthes disease among wild Mediterranean sand smelt (Atherina) with special reference to Ligula intestinalis infection in Egypt. In The International Arab African Fish Resources Conference and Exhibition. 28 - 30 June, 2007 AMIN, A.M. (2009): Zoonotic studies on helminths