, ensuring the adequacy of parametric tests. Variables showing, at univariate analysis, a statistical significant association with depression were introduced in a multivariate model in order to evaluate the association for a number of potential confounders and effect modifiers: age (in years); gender; education (years of school); financial level (individual income in Euro a month); marital status (married, unmarried, widower, divorced); having children (yes/no); a number of illnesses based on medical history (hypertension, musculoskeletal disorders, anxiety, depression
Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
help-seeking skills, thus, concealing their emotional behavioural difficulties ( Walter et al., 2013 ; Ahmed Waqas et al., 2014 ).
Social support is also associated with numerous physical and psychosocial health benefits. It enhances empathy in medical students, which might be an indicator of its stress buffering effects ( Park et al., 2015 ). Poor interpersonal support is associated with increased prevalence of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety, social phobia, sleep problems and several physical health problems (Jeong et al., 2010b; Moak and Agrawal
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
literature, we selected clinically relevant variables that provide a broad picture of impairments related to psychological problems and emotional experience in EDs and that may influence specific domains we studied, that is, executive control and FER.
The Italian versions of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE-17.0) ( Calugi et al., 2017 ) and of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0) ( Calugi et al., 2017 ), were used to generate DSM-5 ED diagnoses and to rule out (mean global score > 2.0) any possible EDs from HCs, respectively. Information on
opening times, meal and prayer times ( Bahammam 2006 ).
Sleep has been shown to be affected in many psychiatric disorders: Patients with depression often suffer interrupted sleep and sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods. Poor sleep may be an early sign or a trigger of depression and manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Sleep deprivation has been used as a therapy for severe depressive disorders. During manic episodes, the need for sleep is known to be reduced. Temporary sleep changes have been observed during Ramadan ( Leiper et al 2008 ). Most of the effects of
Lara N. Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Johannes Hertel, Katharina Wittfeld, René Walk, Nele Friedrich, Henry Völzke and Hans J. Grabe
Childhood trauma can be classified in different categories: Emotional abuse refers to verbal aggression, humiliation or degradation by an adult person. Physical aggression or violation stands for physical abuse. Sexual abuse is defined as sexual contact between the child and an older person. Besides these three categories of abuse, two further categories of childhood neglect exist: ‘ Emotional neglect refers to the failure of caretakers to provide a child’s basic psychological and emotional needs […]’ ( Bernstein and Fink 1998 ). The failure of caregivers to provide
meditate regularly displayed a better impulse control and attention.
Recent intervention research with children and young people has reflected these positive results. The evidence is growing and it includes studies that have found improvements in attention, executive functioning (EF), emotional reactivity, meta-cognition and behavioural regulation ( Flook et al., 2010 ; Saltzman & Goldin, 2008 ; Semple, 2010 ).
These could be seen as promising results for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). At a neurobiological level, children with ADHD
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
high crime, or
residence in a socially isolated neighbourhood.
( Thoresen & Eagleston, 1983 ; Gerstoff et al., 2003)
Signs of chronic stress in children and youth can be either physical such as muscle tension headaches and loss of energy; emotional such as anxiety and nervousness; and behavioural such as weight loss/gain ( Romer, 1993 ). Recently, researchers have shown that chronic stress generates long-term changes in the brain that may explain why people suffering from chronic stress are more prone to mental problems such as anxiety and mood disorders
, we excluded papers covering temporary and short-term emotional states or responses to football involvement.
– Papers focussing only on neuropsychological or psychological symptoms without reference to any major psychiatric disorders were excluded as the high variability in applied study methods, assessment and interventions would prevent any sensible comparison of studies.
– We excluded papers focussing on the neuropsychological and cognitive deficits of head trauma as this has been sufficiently reviewed previously.
– We also excluded studies on
Halim et al.
Risk factors and preventive initiatives
Multiple studies revealed somewhat similar risk factors in Bangladesh. In 2012, a community-based study conducted by Feroz et al. found about 63% of suicides were proximally related with emotional events noticed within the family ( Feroz et al. 2012 ; Shahnaz et al. 2017 ). Another study conducted in rural area revealed about 65.5% of suicides were related with emotional factors and again the factors were found within the family (Reza et al. 2013). A recent