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Quasispecies of Hepatitis B Virus

References 1 Jazayeri SM, Alavian SM, Carman WF. Hepatitis B virus: origin and evolution. J Viral Hepat 2010;17:229-235. 2 Yim HJ. Hepatitis B virus genetic diversity and mutant. Korean J Hepatol 2008;14:446-464. 3 Sheldon J, Rodès B, Zoulim F, Bartholomeusz A, Soriano V. Mutations affecting the replication capacity of the hepatitis B virus. J Viral Hepat 2006;13:427-434. 4 Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S. Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy. J Med Virol 2006;78 Suppl 1:S52

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Early Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Quasispecies During IFN-α Treatment

2006;49(6):352-361. 4. Lipsitch M, O’Hagan JJ. Patterns of antigenic diversity and the mechanisms that maintain them. J R Soc Interface 2007;4(16):787-802. 5. Dandri M, Murray JM, Lutgehetmann M, Volz T, Lohse AW, Petersen J. Virion half-life in chronic hepatitis B infection is strongly correlated with levels of viremia. Hepatology 2008;48(4):1079-1086. 6. Chen L, Zhang Q, Yu DM, Wan MB, Zhang XX, Chen L, et al. Early changes of hepatitis B virus quasispecies during lamivudine treatment and the correlation with

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Coronaviruses in avian species – review with focus on epidemiology and diagnosis in wild birds

that cause enteritis. J Virol 2015, 89, 8783–8792. 10.1128/JVI.00745-15 Wickramasinghe I.N.A. de Vries R.P. Weerts E.A.W.S. van Beurden S.J. Peng W. McBride R. Ducatez M. Guy J. Brown P. Eterradossi N. Grone A. Paulson J.C. Verheijea M.H. Novel receptor specificity of avian gammacoronaviruses that cause enteritis J Virol 2015 89 8783 8792 46 Wille M., Avril A., Tolf C., Schager A., Larsson S., Borg O., Olsen B., Waldenstrom J.: Temporal dynamics, diversity, and interplay in three components of the

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Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

comparative analysis of apicomplexan hemoprotozoa. PLoS Pathog 2007, 3, 1401-1413. 8. Cacciò S., Cammà C., Onuma M., Severini C.: The β-tubulin gene of Babesia and Theileria parasites is an informative marker for species discrimination. Int J Parasitol 2000, 30, 1181-1185. 9. Carcy B., Précigout E., Schetters T., Gorenflot A.: Genetic basis for GPI-anchor merozoite surface antigen polymorphism of Babesia and resulting antigenic diversity. Vet Parasitol 2006, 138, 33-49. 10. Carcy B., Randazzo S., Depoix D., Adaszek L., Cardoso

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Pilot study for the presence of fungal metabolites in sheep milk from first spring milking

trichothecenes, which are modified forms of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. This group includes among others, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3 -acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON), and ruminant metabolite deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), fumonisins (FUMs, FB1, FB2, FB3), zearalenone (ZEN), which is metabolised in ruminants to α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), α-zearalanol (zeranol) (α-ZAL), and β-zearalanol (taleranol) (β-ZAL) ( 23 ). Due to possible contamination with a huge diversity

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