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Review of the methods of cartographic presentation of warfare

Abstract

Maps, depicting the warfare, are elaborated according to the rules developed over the years. Although, they are not free of errors. The authors draw our attention to the diversity of methods related to the cartographic presentations, which are shown on the historical maps. This is quite understandable, because every such a map introduces an individual point of view on the historical facts. It is noted, that the most commonly used methods are the qualitative ones, among which, for instance, first of all, the method of signature is frequently used.

In the case of historical maps displaying an event in the specific sequence of times, a loss of cartographic information always occur. This is connected both with the complexity of historical facts and with the difficulty in reading a map, which should present the dynamics of this phenomenon in a complete way. The dynamic variables, such as the time of exposure, duration, frequency, order, degree of change and synchronisation, should be taken into account on the maps of warfare.

The use of information technology makes it possible to develop not only the simple maps presenting the course of warfare in the statistic and schematic ways, but also the maps, which are rich in various types of multimedia information.

Multimedia cartographic presentations can be enriched with the photos and panoramas showing the direct effects of warfare and the pseudo three-dimensional visualization showing the battle from a selected direction. The proprietary software let to combine the sequence of photos into a presentation, allowing to take a virtual tour of the areas directly affected by the hostilities. Network services, such as WMS, WFS, WCS, provide the integrated data from the different sources for us. So, we can connect the archival maps with the contemporary satellite images, defining, thus, the location of a specific place in the terrain.

The authors do not cover the issue of complexity connected with the elaboration of maps presenting the combat operations. The most important problems, which have not been discussed in this article, are the following ones: lack of base maps from the period to which the presented issues related, deliberate distortion of map contents, historical and cartographic imprecisions presented on the maps, appropriate selection of the methods of cartographic presentation related to the phenomena, which are presented on the maps.

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Examining the relationship between personality, organizational political skill and perceived team performance in a multinational military staff exercise context

performers are differentiated by their well-developed political skill ability ( Blass and Ferris 2007 ; Blickle et al. 2009 ; Ferris et al. 2005 ; Mintzberg 1985 ; Spencer and Spencer 1993 ). A new interest has arisen in the concept of social effectiveness in team dynamics ( Ahearn et al. 2004 ; Lvina et al. 2015 ) due to the dyadic relationship of influence and compromise ( Jensen 2007 ). However, Lvina et al. (2015) argue that politically skilled individuals are talented at achieving beneficial individualistic outcomes, but that it may be detrimental to

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How to Respond to Conflicts Over Value Pluralism?

conflictual in many Western societies. An even more urgent question is how to respond to these conflicts over value pluralism. To do so, the next section starts with a summary of recent sociological research on cultural diversity and its potential conflicts in the Netherlands and Europe. This empirical material will serve in the third section as the background for a philosophical analysis of today’s socio-cultural value conflicts. In the final section, two philosophical ways of responding to conflicts over value pluralism will be discussed. A Sociological View on Value

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Transnationalism in the Pacific Region as a Concept of State Identity

Introduction The Pacific region, because of the interesting dynamics of its development in recent decades (since the 70s of the past century, i.e., the change in New Zealand’s national policy on minorities), has become the center of investigation by professionals from different fields, who are examining the development of New Zealand’s position (i.e., Miller 1995 , Perry-Webster 1999 , Butcher 2012 ) as a key player in the region as the country has also declared itself in official documents ( Statement of Intent 2008–2009 , 12) See more: http

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Divided National Identity in Moldova

Moscow. In compliance with democratic principles, the difference between Romanians and Moldovans is acquiring a strange legitimacy. Recognition and acceptance of differences of other ethnic groups is a fundamental condition of multiculturalism and multinationalism. Unlike other ethnic groups in Moldova, e.g., Ukrainians, Russians, Gagauz, and so on, which recognize mutual differences, many Moldovans and Romanians do not perceive any differences between each other. Support of multiculturalism and respect for ethnic diversity is the right solution for the integration of

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