the differences in the level of entrepreneurship in 2012 and 2016, the analysis of quantitative changes in business entities, the dynamics of their number and the synthetic indicators were used. The basis for the calculation of synthetic indicators were the methods of taxonomic analysis, that is, a simple aggregate measure, the Hellwig taxonomic development pattern method ( Pluta, 1986 ) and the positional method using the Weber median ( Młodak, 2006 ).
When selecting the variables, both substantive and formal criteria were taken into account. As a result of the
Joanna Jaszczuk, Anna Białek-Jaworska, Krzysztof Opolski, Marek Sylwestrzak and Katarzyna Trzpioła
market and loan market in Poland are under ongoing development. The institutions are racing in terms of services offered to smaller companies. It is worth examining how large was the value of provided services and leased assets over the years and which institutions have developed the most. Fig. 1 presents the dynamics in financing of Polish companies with leasing and loans, according to data accessed from the website of Polish Leasing Association. Between 2010 and 2011 the uptake of investment loans grew substantially – up to 27.5 % – which makes up for more than two
between different cultural groups trigger brain reactions as the brain provides lower-level, as well as higher-level reactions on conflicts ( Berns and Atran, 2012 ).
Cultural distances can be measured. At least two different comprehensive methods have been developed, by Geert Hofstede (2001) and Shalom Schwartz ( Hofstede, 2001 ; Schwartz, 2006). However, the importance of language differences, religion and ethnicity is also applied to measure cultural diversity (Kashima and Kashima, 1998 ; Fearon, 2003 ; Patsiurko, Campbell and Hall, 2012).
motive dominates, the pool of emigrants will be more selected, for example, those who emigrate will resemble the population at destination more than the population at home. Consequently, from a purely compositional standpoint, this would predict cultural divergence between home and host populations. In the second part of the model, we acknowledge cultural interactions between immigrants and the host population and well as between emigrants and their home population and consider cultural dynamics, using the Bisin and Verdier (2000) framework, where culture is
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Nadia Nora Urriola Canchari, Pradeep Baral and Lanhui Wang
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Chen, M. (2006). Rethinking the Informal Economy: Linkages with the Formal Economy
Kristóf Gyódi, Maciej Sobolewski and Michał Ziembiński
technique used to analyse the price dynamics, for example, by Cavallo (2015) . The novelty of our approach lies in using data from price comparison services instead of working with great number of individual sites which often use incompatible web technologies. In this way, we are able to collect tons of individual price signals from virtually all shops selling a particular item in each country. With such a large and diversified data, we can measure price dispersion in a robust way and make frequent updates at relatively low cost.
With respect to the pattern of observed
-sloping supply curve of potential immigrants. This analysis, however, fails to account for the impact that accepting large numbers of immigrants today has on policy in the future.
Frameworks presented above suggest a significant impact of immigration on the support for the welfare state. Empirical results show that it is true in the case of the United States, where increasing ethnic diversity was found responsible for undermining social trust and solidarity ( Putnam 2000 ). However, such result stems from the racial tensions and prejudices, especially in the states with high
Miroslava Vlčková, Zuzana Frantíková and Jaroslav Vrchota
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment , 13, 155. https://doi.org/10.1065/lca2007.06.338 .
Kislingerová, E. (2010). Manažerské finance . Praha: C. H. Beck.
Krstić, B., Bonić, L. (2016). A new tool for intellectual capital performance measurement. Prague Economic Papers , 2016, 25(6).
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