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SoK: Making Sense of Censorship Resistance Systems

Abstract

An increasing number of countries implement Internet censorship at different scales and for a variety of reasons. Several censorship resistance systems (CRSs) have emerged to help bypass such blocks. The diversity of the censor’s attack landscape has led to an arms race, leading to a dramatic speed of evolution of CRSs. The inherent complexity of CRSs and the breadth of work in this area makes it hard to contextualize the censor’s capabilities and censorship resistance strategies. To address these challenges, we conducted a comprehensive survey of CRSs-deployed tools as well as those discussed in academic literature-to systematize censorship resistance systems by their threat model and corresponding defenses. To this end, we first sketch a comprehensive attack model to set out the censor’s capabilities, coupled with discussion on the scope of censorship, and the dynamics that influence the censor’s decision. Next, we present an evaluation framework to systematize censorship resistance systems by their security, privacy, performance and deployability properties, and show how these systems map to the attack model. We do this for each of the functional phases that we identify for censorship resistance systems: communication establishment, which involves distribution and retrieval of information necessary for a client to join the censorship resistance system; and conversation, where actual exchange of information takes place. Our evaluation leads us to identify gaps in the literature, question the assumptions at play, and explore possible mitigations.

Open access
DPSelect: A Differential Privacy Based Guard Relay Selection Algorithm for Tor

on Computer and communications security , pages 380–389. ACM, 2009. [14] Tariq Elahi, Kevin Bauer, Mashael AlSabah, Roger Dingle-dine, and Ian Goldberg. Changing of the guards: A framework for understanding and improving entry guard selection in Tor. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society , pages 43–54. ACM, 2012. [15] Nick Feamster and Roger Dingledine. Location diversity in Anonymity Networks. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM workshop on Privacy in the electronic society , pages 66–76. ACM, 2004. [16] Jamie

Open access
Guard Placement Attacks on Path Selection Algorithms for Tor

, Mashael AlSabah, Roger Dingledine, and Ian Goldberg. Changing of the Guards: A Framework for Understanding and Improving Entry Guard Selection in Tor. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society , WPES ’12, 2012. [15] Nick Feamster and Roger Dingledine. Location Diversity in Anonymity Networks. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society , WPES ’04, 2004. [16] Lixin Gao and Jennifer Rexford. Stable Internet Routing Without Global Coordination. IEEE/AM Transactions on Networking , 9(6), 2001

Open access
Privacy-Preserving Interdomain Routing at Internet Scale

References [1] S. Machiraju and R. H. Katz. Leveraging BGP dynamics to reverse-engineer routing policies. Technical Report UCB/EECS-2006-61, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, May 2006. [2] V. Giotsas and S. Zhou. Inferring AS relationships from BGP attributes. CoRR , abs/1106.2417, 2011. [3] D. Gupta, A. Segal, A. Panda, G. Segev, M. Schapira, J. Feigenbaum, J. Rexford, and S. Shenker. A new approach to interdomain routing based on secure multi-party computation. In Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets’12) , pages 37

Open access
Structural Analysis of Medical-Terminology Hashtag versus Lay-Language Hashtag Tweet Collections: An Information Theoretical Method with Entropy Matrix

.. Therefore, the primary motivation of this study is investigating the creative variety of recombining different components in tweets to gain insights into tweeting/retweeting behavior. Additionally, the choice between medical hashtags and lay-language hashtags remains an under-researched topic in the subject of efficient healthcare communication on Twitter. This study explores the characteristics of tweets by comparing semantically similar healthcare hashtags and focuses on understanding the effect of tweet content diversity on the efficiency of healthcare communication

Open access
Burgeoning Data Repository Systems, Characteristics, and Development Strategies: Insights of Natural Resources and Environmental Scientists

College of Natural Resources and Environment has consistently been recognized as a leading program in North America and as the nation’s best for studying natural resources and conservation (USA Today, 2015, 2017; Virginia Tech News, 2016 ). It thus presents an exemplary site of academic practice with implications for other sites of similar institutional portfolio or academic profile. Uniquely positioned within the college, the Center for Natural Resources Assessment and Decision Support engages in translational work of assessing the complex dynamics of changing land

Open access
Evolution of Project Management as a Scientific Discipline

attention, on average, than other categories, i.e., receiving more citation despite less frequent use of them. The bluish cluster (the bottom right side of the graph) can be classified as risk analysis and management, referring to techniques for dealing and interpreting risks and uncertainties such as “simulation,” “system dynamics,” and “decision-making” tools. Figure 3 depicts different clusters of keywords, reflecting the research themes, for each period. Research areas/topics such as “tools (systems/software),” “organizational issues,” “education,” and “project

Open access
Exploring Technology Evolution in the Solar Cell Field: An Aspect from Patent Analysis

prosperity and decline of dominators does not cease. Understanding such an evolving history and what has changed can lead to a clearer comprehension of innovation development and the possession of a major competitive advantage. Sensing the need for tracing technology evolvement, a novel method for detecting the evolving trends is proposed in this study. Time series analysis and social network analysis (SNA) are combined with patentometrics to uncover the hidden structure of transition, which can be gained from observing the dynamics of dominators and communities. The

Open access
Citation performance of publications grouped by keywords, titles, and abstracts

articles that have obscure titles have lower citation performance. Uddin and Khan (2016) analyzed research output in the obesity research area. Publications that have newly introduced keywords are found to receive fewer citations. In contrast, keyword diversity and number of keywords have positive effect on the citation performance. Fox and Burns (2015) have detailed information about the editorial process of the journal Functional ecology . The study found that publications that have specific species names in their titles are rejected more often at the editorial

Open access