Sheharbano Khattak, Tariq Elahi, Laurent Simon, Colleen M. Swanson, Steven J. Murdoch and Ian Goldberg
An increasing number of countries implement Internet censorship at different scales and for a variety of reasons. Several censorship resistance systems (CRSs) have emerged to help bypass such blocks. The diversity of the censor’s attack landscape has led to an arms race, leading to a dramatic speed of evolution of CRSs. The inherent complexity of CRSs and the breadth of work in this area makes it hard to contextualize the censor’s capabilities and censorship resistance strategies. To address these challenges, we conducted a comprehensive survey of CRSs-deployed tools as well as those discussed in academic literature-to systematize censorship resistance systems by their threat model and corresponding defenses. To this end, we first sketch a comprehensive attack model to set out the censor’s capabilities, coupled with discussion on the scope of censorship, and the dynamics that influence the censor’s decision. Next, we present an evaluation framework to systematize censorship resistance systems by their security, privacy, performance and deployability properties, and show how these systems map to the attack model. We do this for each of the functional phases that we identify for censorship resistance systems: communication establishment, which involves distribution and retrieval of information necessary for a client to join the censorship resistance system; and conversation, where actual exchange of information takes place. Our evaluation leads us to identify gaps in the literature, question the assumptions at play, and explore possible mitigations.
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.. Therefore, the primary motivation of this study is investigating the creative variety of recombining different components in tweets to gain insights into tweeting/retweeting behavior. Additionally, the choice between medical hashtags and lay-language hashtags remains an under-researched topic in the subject of efficient healthcare communication on Twitter.
This study explores the characteristics of tweets by comparing semantically similar healthcare hashtags and focuses on understanding the effect of tweet content diversity on the efficiency of healthcare communication
College of Natural Resources and Environment has consistently been recognized as a leading program in North America and as the nation’s best for studying natural resources and conservation (USA Today, 2015, 2017; Virginia Tech News, 2016 ). It thus presents an exemplary site of academic practice with implications for other sites of similar institutional portfolio or academic profile. Uniquely positioned within the college, the Center for Natural Resources Assessment and Decision Support engages in translational work of assessing the complex dynamics of changing land
attention, on average, than other categories, i.e., receiving more citation despite less frequent use of them. The bluish cluster (the bottom right side of the graph) can be classified as risk analysis and management, referring to techniques for dealing and interpreting risks and uncertainties such as “simulation,” “system dynamics,” and “decision-making” tools.
Figure 3 depicts different clusters of keywords, reflecting the research themes, for each period. Research areas/topics such as “tools (systems/software),” “organizational issues,” “education,” and “project
prosperity and decline of dominators does not cease. Understanding such an evolving history and what has changed can lead to a clearer comprehension of innovation development and the possession of a major competitive advantage.
Sensing the need for tracing technology evolvement, a novel method for detecting the evolving trends is proposed in this study. Time series analysis and social network analysis (SNA) are combined with patentometrics to uncover the hidden structure of transition, which can be gained from observing the dynamics of dominators and communities. The
articles that have obscure titles have lower citation performance. Uddin and Khan (2016) analyzed research output in the obesity research area. Publications that have newly introduced keywords are found to receive fewer citations. In contrast, keyword diversity and number of keywords have positive effect on the citation performance. Fox and Burns (2015) have detailed information about the editorial process of the journal Functional ecology . The study found that publications that have specific species names in their titles are rejected more often at the editorial