of the first vaccination campaigns (by 1805 there were at least 400,000 people vaccinated) fit into a context of mobilisation for war. According to one doctor, the new virus was supposed to produce »a magnificent race of men […] who would be able to compel foreign respect for the State«. J. Parfait, Réflexions historiques et critiques sur les dangers de la variole naturelle sur les différentes méthodes de traitement sur les avantages de ľinoculation et les succès de la vaccine pour ľextinction de la variole, Paris 1804, p. 67. In 1804, the Minister of the Interior
literature on colonial and postcolonial administration, state building and the failures therein. Some entry points to this huge literature: Athul Kohli can serve as a starting point for the literature on colonial rule and development. Athul Kohli, State Directed Development, Cambridge 2004. Matthew Lange delivers a good account of direct and indirect rule in British colonies. Matthew Lange, Lineages of Despotism and Development, Chicago 2009. Jeffrey Herbst has recently published a revised version of his classic on African colonies. Jeffrey Herbst, States and Power in
emotions towards the state. The law against defamatory speech acts directed at the authorities formed the more specific normative basis of emotion work in the relationship between state and citizens. On the concept, cf. Hochschild: »Emotion Work«, pp. 551–575. However, it is discussed only in small circles of experts in public law who are not concerned with its wider political implications. Cf. Georg Gaisbauer: »Die beleidigende Schreibweise im Verwaltungsverfahren im Spiegel der Rechtsprechung«, in: Österreichische Gemeinde-Zeitung 10 (1995), pp. 20–26. This is quite
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
restored, as were the Provincial States, with the electoral recruitment of their members remaining largely in line with procedures of the recent past.
The search for an effective balance between the old and the new continued to pervade the interior administration of the new state. It seems that the restoration of the old provinces and the electoral system based on estates was mainly done to placate the old local elites, and thereby facilitate peace and reconciliation after the tumultuous Batavian-French period. As Van Hogendorp, one of the authors of the new
und ihre Familien. /: Militärversorgungsgesetze und Anregung einer präventiven Hilfsaktion :/, 2. Bogen.
By early 1915, interior ministry officials had prepared a programme for re-integration, composed of medical therapy, occupational counselling, professional training and employment services to »direct [disabled soldiers] back to gainful activity as useful members of society«. ÖStA, AVA, MdI, Praes., 19, Kt. 1862, 3501/1915, Maßnahmen zur Wiederherstellung der Arbeitsfähigkeit der Kriegs-Invaliden, Bildung von Landeskommissionen. For this purpose, the