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Jiří Mareš


Introduction: It is paradoxical that more attention is currently paid to negative features in children’s and adolescents’ behavior (aggressive behavior, bullying) than to the positive ones (helping, social support). Purpose: This literature review describes how children’s sensitivity to helping other people develops and how children acquire competences in helping. Methods: The literature search was conducted in databases using keywords “child”, “prosocial development” and “prosocial behavior”. Publications (papers or monographs) published in English or Czech between 1989 and 2016 were retrieved. Conclusions: The study identified the following sources of prosocial behavior: use of fairy-tale motifs in the case of babies (e. g. the motif of good deeds) and targeted family education with the use of direct and indirect procedures. Targeted education of children in preschool was accomplished by experienced teachers. Education in providing help and social support to schoolmates (including the socalled partnership and peer teaching) at elementary school was identified as a special case.

Open access

Elena Fortis


Introduction:The research study deals with the personality of managers in regard to their professional career. The main objective of the study was to find the relationship between the personality dimensions according to the Big Five personality traits model and Holland’s typology of the six personality types and work environment types.

Methods:The research sample consisted of 121 managers from different levels of the subordinate system in state organizations and private companies in Slovakia. The personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were in this research measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. We have also used the SDS questionnaire - Self-Directed Search to determine the personality types and work environment types - RIASEC codes. The statistical evaluation was performed using the SPSS 20 statistical system, with the data evaluated by methods of descriptive and correlation analysis.

Results:There were the highest values recorded in Conscientiousness throughout the research sample. The lowest values were recorded in Neuroticism. We found out that the Summary Code of managers is ESI (Enterprising, Social, Investigative), of male managers is EIR (Enterprising, Investigative, Realistic), of female managers is SEC (Social, Enterprising, Conventional). When comparing the individual RIASEC personality types, we found significant differences between males and females. Males are more realistic than females, more investigative and enterprising than females. Females are more social and conventional compared to males. There was no gender difference in artistic orientation. The RIASEC personality types in the entire sample match the RIASEC work environment types according to SDS, regardless of age. The results demonstrated relationships between the NEO - FFI personality dimensions and personality types and RIASEC work environment types codes according to SDS.

Discussion:We can say that managers in our research sample are primarily Enterprising types with leading life orientation. Typical representatives of this personality type are characterized especially by traits such as dominance, ambition, focus on success, self-confidence, sociability, and responsibility. In the context of a manager’s success and their effectiveness, or ineffectiveness in work environment, the most predictive Big Five factor for an effective manager is Neuroticism, all effective managers scored low in Neuroticism. Results obtained by the SDS questionnaire - Self-Directed Search confirm our findings of prevalent personality dimensions in the overall personality profile of managers. The overall RIASEC personality code of managers according to SDS is ESI in the whole research sample, thus we can conclude that in the case of the overall personality type - RIASEC code of manager the dominant personality type is Enterprising/leading, followed by the Social personality type and the third is the Investigative personality type.

Limitations:One of the methodological limitations of this research is the number of participants in the research sample. We do not consider this number as representative for the purpose of generalizing the results.

Conclusions:Research results show that there is a relationship between professional orientation and personality. Some personality dimensions are significantly related to professional orientation types and to professional interests, whereas others are related only non-significantly or not at all. Significant relations were found between the dimension Openness and Artistic, Leading, and Social type, between the dimension Extraversion and Enterprising and Investigative type, and between the dimension Agreeableness and the Social type. Realistic type was not related to any personality dimension. The dimension Neuroticism was negatively related to all professional types. For the career counseling practice and selection of job seekers and manager position applicants, this may mean that despite confirmation of these convergences, there may be different relations between different Holland’s professional types and personality dimensions.

These findings can be the focus of further research on students in their final year of secondary school when they are deciding on their future professional career.

This research study, we believe, has contributed to the understanding of the relationship between personality and professional career. The results confirm that professional orientation and personality interact and influence the professional behavior of a person.

Open access

Vilma Žydžiūnaitė


Introduction: The search for solutions to the issue of leadership leads to hundreds of leadership studies, most of which are contradictory and inconclusive. The scientific literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on educational, academic, managerial or thought leadership. This literature provides the opinion that the intellectual leadership in higher education is directed towards building social and intellectual capital through a scholar’s involvement in decision-making and performance of leadership roles in ways that support the scholar’s collaborative decision-making and empowerment. Scholars see intellectual leadership as the scope of challenging processes, which incorporate ideas, values, understandings, solutions, beliefs, visions, knowledge, approaches, purpose and actions. These aspects must be accepted through collectively-shared understanding and generated contextually for organizational development in higher education. With growth in administrative demands, it becomes difficult for intellectual leaders to achieve an appropriate balance of leadership, teaching and research in higher education.

Purpose: To explore and describe the conceptual contents of intellectual leadership and academic leadership by providing their similarities and differences.

Methods: In the research, a descriptive literature review (Yang & Tate, 2012) was applied. The sample was mainly based on academic publications; the articles included are all refereed journal articles.

Conclusions: The literature review covered wide range of aspects, which reveal that intellectual leadership consists of roles that have several orientations, but the intellectual leadership is not related to the formal administrational or managerial positions. The roles of a scholar in relation to the concept of “intellectual leadership” maybe seen through the following activity spheres: mentor represents educational sphere, guardian – moral sphere, enabler – managerial and administrative spheres, and ambassador – political and communication sphere (Zydziunaite, 2016). The importance of personal characteristics and academic achievements in the formation of intellectual leaders’ reputation is also highlighted in the article. Despite the limitations of definitions on intellectual leadership it is argued that this concept is related to the organic personality of an intellectual leader (scholar) who acts as organizer of ideas, carries responsibility for academic development and direction in higher education.

Open access

María Cristina Otero Gómez and Wilson Giraldo Pérez

de Sociología, 71 (1), 131-157. Ballesteros, D. B., Tavera, J. F., & Castaño, D. (2014). Aceptación tecnológica de la publicidad en dispositivos móviles en Colombia. Semestre Económico, 17 (36), 133-153. Blattberg, R., & Neslin, S. A. (1990). Sales promotion: concepts, methods, and strategies . Nueva York, USA: Prentice Hall. Bonilla, C. (2013). Evolución de las relaciones públicas en los últimos 25 años. Razón y Palabra, 18 (83). [Online] Available: Briceño, S., Mejías, I. & Godoy, E