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Lauren B. Bolden, Sandipan Pati and Jerzy P. Szaflarski

. et al.: A translational platform for prototyping closed-loop neuromodulation systems . Front Neural. Circuits, 2013, 6: 117. Allendorpher J.B. and Szaflarski J.P.: Physiologic and cortical responses to acute psychosocial stress in left temporal lobe epilepsy: Response to a biochemical evaluation . Epilepsy Behav., 2014, October, 08, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.08.018. Ardolino G., Bossi B., Barbieri S., Priori A.: Non-synaptic mechanisms underlie the after-effects of cathodal transcutaneous direct current stimulation of the human brain . J

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Heinz Gregor Wieser

. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2015, 86: 1273–1276. Hirsch L.J., Lain A.H., Walczak T.S.: Postictal nosewiping lateralizes and localizes to the ipsilateral temporal lobe . Epilepsia, 1998, 39: 991–997. Holmes G.L., Lenck-Santini P.-P.: Role of interictal epileptiform abnormalities in cognitive impairment . Epilepsy Behav., 2006, 8: 504–515. Ikeda A., Taki W., Kunieda T., Terada K., Mikuni N., Nagamine T.: Focal ictal direct current shifts in human epilepsy as studied by subdural and scalp recording . Brain, 1999, 122: 827

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Joanna Gałaszkiewicz, Krzysztof Rębisz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz and Gustaw Kozak

Findings From a Double-Blind-Randomized Trial. Schizophr. Bull. 42(1), 250–257 (2016). 78. Nitsche MA, Niehaus L, Hoffmann KT, Hengst S, Liebetanz D, Paulus W et al. MRI study of human brain exposed to weak direct current stimulation of the frontal cortex. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2004; 115 (10): 2419–2423 79. Nitsche MA, Doemkes S, Karaköse T, Antal A, Liebetanz D, Lang N et al. Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97(4):3109-17 80. Boggio PS, Rigonatti SP, Ribeiro RB, Myczkowski ML

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Aleksander Araszkiewicz and Izabela Mirlak

Abstract

Introduction: As the global number of diabetes and the burden of depression together with other mental disorders increases, there is a need for better understanding of the connection between these diseases. In patients with diabetes, mental disorders are more common than in the general population, especially anxiety disorders and depression, which are often difficult to detect by health professionals.

Material and methods: Using the keywords searched in the international bibliographic databases: Embase, Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science. We analyzed clinical trials published in English and international journals

Results: Patients with diabetes are exposed to serious physical and mental complications. The occurence of depression and psychiatric disorders among people with diabetes was twice as frequent as in the general population. There are also studies showing a higher risk of suicide among people with diabetes. In addition, patients with both diseases, diabetes and depression, had an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and increased mortality and higher costs of health care. Diabetic patients have increased incidence of anxiety disorders in relation to non-diabetic patients by 20%.

Conclusion: Further researches and integration of medical and psychological treatment are needed. Cooperation between psychiatrists and diabetologists can reduce mental and physical harm in patients with diabetes.