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Athanasios Psarras, Dimitra Mertyri and Panagiotis Tsaklis


The purpose of this article is to review the literature that deals with the biomechanical analysis of the ankle during gait stance phase on slopes, on uneven and rock surfaces, on sand, and on grass surfaces, as well as to present the observed differences. Methods. The literature was searched in the databases of PubMed and Google Scholar, for the years of 2005–2015. The keywords were: biomechanics, gait analysis, ankle joint, stance phase, uphill walking, downhill walking, sand surface, uneven surface, grass surface, and ballast. Results. The kinetic and kinematic gait behaviour is directly influenced by the surface on which it is being performed. The uphill or downhill surfaces, the surfaces of stone, sand, grass, and uneven surfaces have a direct impact on the biomechanics on joints of the lower limb, changing the energy cost, muscle activation, the resulting mechanical work, ground reaction forces and balance, and the parameters of the gait cycle. All these changes are raising many questions about the safety and comfort of these surfaces. In the structures of the foot, ankle and lower leg high compressive and rotational forces are transmitted resulting in injuries in these regions. Conclusions. Each surface has its own advantages and disadvantages, changing the biomechanics of the lower extremity and particularly the ankle. According to the purpose that one wants to achieve they can choose a suitable surface. To prevent injuries and falls, we must choose shoes that fit well, are comfortable with cushioning, and have a feeling neither too hard nor too soft, with laces and low collar.

Open access

Rune Dall Jensen, Ask Vest Christiansen and Kristoffer Henriksen

Psychology with Olympic and Paralympic Athletes. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action , 3(2), 119-126. doi:10.1080/21520704.2012.683088Salmela, J. H. (1989). Long-term intervention with the Canadian men's Olympic gymnastic team. Sport Psychologist, 3(4), 340-349. Retrieved from Samulski, D.M., & Lopes, M.C. (2008). Counseling Brazilian athletes during the Olympic Games in Athens 2004: Important issues and intervention techniques. International Journal of Sport and Exercise

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Wichai Yeemin, Cláudia Salomé Dias and António Manuel Fonseca

characteristics, and focus category. This study examines various research strategies that have been employed in psychological articles examining futsal without intention of appraisal. Material and Methods Search strategy The following electronic databases were searched: Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Sport discuss, and Descorberta. Reference lists were scanned to identify further studies that were missed by the electronic search. The search term “psychology” was used in combination with “futsal” or “indoor soccer” or “indoor football” or “street

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Iván Prieto-Lage, M.A. Prieto, Thomas P. Curran and Alfonso Gutiérrez-Santiago

and qualitative methods, the approach becomes more consistent. As a consequence, in recent years, the number of studies integrating both methods has increased in the field of sport science ( Camerino et al., 2014 ; Gutierrez-Santiago et al., 2011 ; Fernandez et al., 2009 ; Prieto et al., 2013 ). This combined method, also known as a “mixed method” (Anguera et al., 2014; Camerino et al., 2012a ), is frequently applied to study some issues involving the complexity of the human motor behavior in other areas. The purpose of this research was to solve the problem

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Ricardo Franco Lima, José M. Palao and Filipe Manuel Clemente

. Technical-tactical performance profile of reception according to competition category in men volleyball. Rev Kronos , 2014; 13(1): 1–9. Available from Garcia-Alcaraz A Palao JM Ortega E Technical-tactical performance profile of reception according to competition category in men volleyball Rev Kronos 2014 13 1 1 – 9 Available from Huang C, Hu LH

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Monika Piątkowska, Jolanta Żyśko and Sylwia Gocłowska

marketing: Corporate strategy and consumer reaction. Psychology and Marketing, 15 (4), 305-322. Meenaghan, T. (1998b). Guest Editorial Ambush Marketing: Examining the Perspectives, Psychology & Marketing, pp. 301-304. Retrieved from Mishra, P., & Mishra, S. (2011). The Legal Perspective of Ambush Marketing: an Arm Length Study in Indian Scenario. International Journal of Business Insights & Transformation, 4 (2), 128-135. Nufer, G. (2009). Sponsoring the

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Maamer Slimani, Hela Znazen, Bianca Miarka and Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

; Boraczyński et al., 2015 ; Canhadas et al., 2010 ; Gil et al., 2007a , b ; Le Gall et al., 2010 ; Portes et al., 2015 ; Reilly et al., 2000 ; Silvestre et al., 2006 ) for their ecological, criterion and synchronized validity and subsequently a very strong (r = 0.8-1.0) relationship with the direct assessment method for senior athletes ( Bangsbo et al., 2008 ; Castagna et al., 2009 ; Leger and Lambert, 1982 ; Paliczka et al., 1987 ; Rampinini et al., 2007 ). Present meta-analyses highlighted that the type of a test significantly impacted VO 2max values stratified

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Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Luis García-González, David Pizarro and Fernando Del Villar

selection, Augste and Lames (2001) reached a conclusion that the search for short-term performance and success prevailed in formative categories. These authors indicated that coaches, instead of trying to identify more talented players who can provide them with better results in the future, selected those born in the first quartile. In addition to this, nowadays, both club coaches and directors, as well as the players’ parents, are more oriented towards competitive, instead of formative sport, from the very early age. Thus, we may notice how children born at the end of

Open access

Joanna Basiaga-Pasternak

. Drawing from the Lazarus’ model, the strategies of coping with stress can be divided into the task-focused (focused on a problem) and emotions-focused ( Folkman and Lazarus, 1985 ). The task-focused strategies are related to an activity directed at the difficulties encountered. Tenenbaum et al. (2008) give examples of such activities: planning the next step, identifying goals, making strategic plans, etc. The emotions-focused strategies are aimed at regulating a person’s emotional state. According to Tenenbaum et al. (2008) emotional strategies comprise relaxation

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David Hortigüela Alcalá and Alejandra Hernando Garijo

, and 3) to contrast PE teachers’ perceptions on the importance of methodology to teach sports. Methods Participants There were 237 participants in the study (58.3% males, 41.7% females), who were students from a secondary school in Burgos (Spain). Sixty-three were in the 1 st grade, 64 in the 2 nd , 56 in the 3 rd and 54 in the 4 th grade. The average age was 13.32 ± 2.31 years. Two groups were naturally created. The experimental group (A), 128 students (35 1 st , 31 2 nd , 30 3 rd , 32 4 th grade), experienced TGfU. None of the students had experienced