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Vladimír Naxera and Petr Krčál

using the extended lexical search method. The search subject included words that are linked to the phenomenon of security, namely, security/danger, endangerment/endanger, threat, and risk. The found occurrences were subjected to manual refining. During this refining process, occurrences of terms that 1) were not linked to the topic of security (e.g., “securing [in the sense of providing conditions for] the course of the event”) and 2) were not linked to the conventional concept of security but fell into the wider concept of it (e.g., “ensuring the security of miners

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Elmira Muratova

, particularly its rejection of the Soviet regime, nonviolent methods of struggle, and support for democratic forces in Ukraine ( Ozcelik 2015 , 13-14). Despite the dominance of secular views, the leadership of the Mejlis often appealed to Islam as an important component of the historical and cultural tradition of the Crimean Tatars. At the same time, all ideologies that proclaimed the primacy of religion over ethnicity were rejected by it as alien and harmful to the Crimean Tatars, such as those that can lead to the assimilation of the people, its dissolution among the

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Mukhtar Senggirbay

constructivist theories. The case study of Kazakhstani Russians was analyzed applying the various methods of qualitative research, including surveys, in-depth interviews, content analysis of the publications, and the speeches of political figures and activists. In addition, the methods of participant observation helped in understanding the cultural differentiation of the Russian religious organizations in Kazakhstan. The revised literature allows us to identify the three multidirectional and mutually incompatible trends in the comprehension of the ethnic identity

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Erik Pajtinka

the notion of diplomacy with the state, we can distinguish several of its basic meanings. In academic sources, as well as in diplomatic practice, the word “diplomacy” is most commonly understood as the tool or process for the promotion of a state’s foreign policy interests through negotiation or other nonviolent means (with the exception of the means of international law). Methods of international law, including, e.g., solving of disputes before an international court, are – as a rule – considered a separate tool of performance of the state’s foreign policy. For

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Michaela Strapáčová and Vít Hloušek

and practically no migrants of the recent refugee wave? The focus of this paper will be on the “supply side” – the cognitive frames constructed by the main political actors – in order to simplify the complex reality and to offer an ontological and epistemic point of departure to the voters. In order to answer this question, we organized the paper in the following manner. First, we provide a brief introduction into the concept of cognitive frames in order to delimit the scope and methods of research and to operationalize the research question. The ensuing section

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Jean-Baptiste Fressoz

of the first vaccination campaigns (by 1805 there were at least 400,000 people vaccinated) fit into a context of mobilisation for war. According to one doctor, the new virus was supposed to produce »a magnificent race of men […] who would be able to compel foreign respect for the State«. J. Parfait, Réflexions historiques et critiques sur les dangers de la variole naturelle sur les différentes méthodes de traitement sur les avantages de ľinoculation et les succès de la vaccine pour ľextinction de la variole, Paris 1804, p. 67. In 1804, the Minister of the Interior

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Valentin Seidler

literature on colonial and postcolonial administration, state building and the failures therein. Some entry points to this huge literature: Athul Kohli can serve as a starting point for the literature on colonial rule and development. Athul Kohli, State Directed Development, Cambridge 2004. Matthew Lange delivers a good account of direct and indirect rule in British colonies. Matthew Lange, Lineages of Despotism and Development, Chicago 2009. Jeffrey Herbst has recently published a revised version of his classic on African colonies. Jeffrey Herbst, States and Power in

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Peter Becker

emotions towards the state. The law against defamatory speech acts directed at the authorities formed the more specific normative basis of emotion work in the relationship between state and citizens. On the concept, cf. Hochschild: »Emotion Work«, pp. 551–575. However, it is discussed only in small circles of experts in public law who are not concerned with its wider political implications. Cf. Georg Gaisbauer: »Die beleidigende Schreibweise im Verwaltungsverfahren im Spiegel der Rechtsprechung«, in: Österreichische Gemeinde-Zeitung 10 (1995), pp. 20–26. This is quite

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Gert Pickel and Cemal Öztürk

level: The assumed negative individual-level effect of contacts on anti-Muslim prejudice lacks an amplifier in Eastern Europe as Muslim communities are virtually inexistent in these parts of Europe. To put it bluntly, the lack of direct contacts in Eastern Europe fosters citizen’s antipathy toward Muslims. It is also conceivable that Islamophobic attitudes lead to less contact with Muslims. However, research on the contact hypothesis suggests the causal direction we deploy in our article: Contact is likely to reduce prejudice against out-groups (Pettigrew and Tropp

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Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt

restored, as were the Provincial States, with the electoral recruitment of their members remaining largely in line with procedures of the recent past. The search for an effective balance between the old and the new continued to pervade the interior administration of the new state. It seems that the restoration of the old provinces and the electoral system based on estates was mainly done to placate the old local elites, and thereby facilitate peace and reconciliation after the tumultuous Batavian-French period. As Van Hogendorp, one of the authors of the new