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Marzena Malara, Joanna Tkaczyk, Anna Kęska, Grażyna Lutosławska and Krzysztof Mazurek

phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1301: 29-35. 10. Calvo M.S., Uribarri J. (2013) Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 98: 6-15. 11. Dai Q., Shu X.O., Deng X., Xiang Y.B., Li H., Yang G., Shrubsole M.J., Ji B., Cai H., Chow W.H., Gao Y.T., Zheng W. (2013) Modifying effect of calcium/magnesi¬um intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study. BMJ, Open.; 3

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Marzena Malara and Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak

. Lutosławska G., K. Mazurek, A. Kęska, A. Czajkowska, P. Żmijewski (2011) Validity of self-reported dietary intakes in young men and women with different physical activity. Med. Sportiva ., 15: 119-124. 26. Malara M., G. Lutosławska (2010) Physical activity, dietary habits and plasma lipoproteins in young men and women. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig ., 61: 405-412. 27. McNamara D.J. (2000) Dietary cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta ., 1529: 310-320. 28. Mente A., L. de Koning, H.S. Shannon, S.S. Anand (2009) A

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Leonardo V Andreato, Jonatas FS Santos, João VDC Esteves, Valeria LG Panissa, Ursula F Julio and Emerson Franchini

(kg) 69.8 4.3 67.4 – 72.3 62.0 – 75.6 MM (kg) 47.5 5.8 44.1 – 50.9 40.4 – 60.9 MM (%) 59.2 5.0 56.3 – 60.1 54.7 – 73.3 Somatotype Ectomorphy 1.4 0.9 0.9 – 2.0 0.0 – 3.6 Mesomorphy 5.3 2.0 4.1 – 6.4 1.3 – 9.9 Endomorphy 3.7 1.5 2.9 – 4.6 2.4 – 8.0 BMI = Body mass index; LBM = lean body mass; MM= muscle mass. SD: standard deviation, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval . Table 2 shows the dietary intake of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. There was wide variation in energy

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Alpay Güvenç

, Reed RL. Effect of religious practices of Ramadan on sleep and perceived sleepiness of medical students. Teach Learn Med, 2004; 16: 145-149 Maughan RJ, Bartagi Z, Dvorak J, Zerguini Y. Dietary intake and body composition of football players during the holy month of Ramadan. J Sport Sci, 2008; 26 (Suppl. 3): 29-38 McMillan K, Helgerud J, Grant SJ, Newell J, Wilson J, Mcdonald R, Hoff J. Lactate threshold responses to a season of professional British youth soccer. Brit J Sport Med, 2005; 39: 432

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Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer and Po-Ju Lin

Introduction For the past several decades, the mainstream scientific opinion on healthy diets and the recommendations for dietary intake have favored high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HCLF) diets. This position has led most countries in the world to issue dietary guidelines in favor of lowering dietary fat and increasing starch and fiber intake ( Myers et al., 2013 ). These guidelines have largely been followed as dietary carbohydrate content has gradually increased at the expense of fat ( Johnston et al., 2014 ). Despite the scientific and dietary progress in

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Gianna Ligouri, Todd Shoepe and Hawley Almstedt

References Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL. Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the united states: Third national health and nutrition examination survey, phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data, 1994: 1-28. Almstedt HC, Canepa JA, Ramirez DA, Shoepe TC. Changes in bone mineral density in response to 24 weeks of resistance training in college-age men and women. J Strength Cond Res, 2011; 25: 1098

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Lore Metz, Thomas Deleuze, Bruno Pereira and David Thivel

(3): 193-196 Chaput JP, Drapeau V, Poirier P, Teasdale N, Tremblay A. Glycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake: association with knowledge-based work. Psychosom Med , 2008; 70(7): 797-804 Chaput JP, Tremblay A. Acute effects of knowledge-based work on feeding behavior and energy intake. Physiol Behav , 2007; 90(1): 66-72 Chaput JP, Tremblay A. The glucostatic theory of appetite control and the risk of obesity and diabetes. Int J Obes (Lond) , 2009; 33(1): 46-53 da Silva AI, Fernandes LC, Fernandez R. Energy expenditure and intensity

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Tomasz Podgórski, Jakub Kryściak, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Ryszard Strzelczyk and Maciej Pawlak

Abstract

Post-physical training changes in iron metabolism in the human body often occur. To fully describe these processes, fifteen male Polish National Team field hockey players (age 27.7 ± 5.2 years, body mass 72.8 ± 7.6 kg and body height 177.1 ± 5.7 cm) were examined in three phases of an annual training cycle: preparatory (T1), competitive (T2) and transition (T3). To assess aerobic fitness, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated. Based on the iron concentration, the changes in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) and other selected haematological indicators (haemoglobin, erythrocytes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin - MCH) in iron metabolism were estimated. The average values of maximum oxygen uptake increased from 54.97 ± 3.62 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T1 to 59.93 ± 3.55 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T2 (p<0.05) and then decreased to 56.21 ± 4.56 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T3 (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes in the erythrocyte count were noted. The MCH and haemoglobin concentration decreased between T1 and T2. The maximal exercise test caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma iron concentration during the competition and transition phases. Progressive but non-significant increases in resting iron concentration, TIBC and UIBC in the analysed annual training cycle were noted. To show global changes in iron metabolism in the human body, it is necessary to determine additional variables, i.e. UIBC, TIBC, haemoglobin, MCH or the erythrocyte count. The direction of changes in iron metabolism depends on both the duration and intensity of the physical activity and the fitness level of the subjects. Dietary intake of iron increases the level of this trace element and prevents anaemia associated with training overloads.

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Gehan Elsawy, Osama Abdelrahman and Amr Hamza

., Campinas, 2007; 20(3): 307-315 Hanin I, Ansell GB. Lecithin : Technological, Biological, and Therapeutic Aspects, Plenum Press, NY, 180-181; 1987 Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ. Relations between dietary choline or lecithin intake, serum choline levels, and various metabolic indices. Metabolism, 1978; 27(8): 953-960 Huang SH, Johnson K, Pipe AL. The use of Dietary Supplements and Medications by Canadian Athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games. Clin J Sport Med, 2006; 16(1): 27-33 Kanter MM

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Witold Kozirok, Ewa Babicz-Zielińska and Bartłomiej Krzebietke

0I:10.1249/01.MSS.0000121944.19275. C4. 6. Krejpcio Z., Skwarek K., Hyżyk A.K., Dyba S. (2011). Evalu­ation of prevalence of dietary supplements intake in a se­lected group of sports people. Problemy Higieny i Epidemio­logii 92(4), 935-938. [in Polish] 7. Charzewska J., Wajszczyk B. (2011). Nutritional supple­ments vs. intense physical exercise. In M. Jarosz (Ed.), Nutri­tional supplements vs. health (pp. 106-119). Warszawa: Wy­dawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL. [in Polish] 8. Celejowa I. (2011). Physical activity vs