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Leonardo V Andreato, Jonatas FS Santos, João VDC Esteves, Valeria LG Panissa, Ursula F Julio and Emerson Franchini

(kg) 69.8 4.3 67.4 – 72.3 62.0 – 75.6 MM (kg) 47.5 5.8 44.1 – 50.9 40.4 – 60.9 MM (%) 59.2 5.0 56.3 – 60.1 54.7 – 73.3 Somatotype Ectomorphy 1.4 0.9 0.9 – 2.0 0.0 – 3.6 Mesomorphy 5.3 2.0 4.1 – 6.4 1.3 – 9.9 Endomorphy 3.7 1.5 2.9 – 4.6 2.4 – 8.0 BMI = Body mass index; LBM = lean body mass; MM= muscle mass. SD: standard deviation, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval . Table 2 shows the dietary intake of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. There was wide variation in energy

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Alpay Güvenç

, Reed RL. Effect of religious practices of Ramadan on sleep and perceived sleepiness of medical students. Teach Learn Med, 2004; 16: 145-149 Maughan RJ, Bartagi Z, Dvorak J, Zerguini Y. Dietary intake and body composition of football players during the holy month of Ramadan. J Sport Sci, 2008; 26 (Suppl. 3): 29-38 McMillan K, Helgerud J, Grant SJ, Newell J, Wilson J, Mcdonald R, Hoff J. Lactate threshold responses to a season of professional British youth soccer. Brit J Sport Med, 2005; 39: 432

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Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer and Po-Ju Lin

Introduction For the past several decades, the mainstream scientific opinion on healthy diets and the recommendations for dietary intake have favored high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HCLF) diets. This position has led most countries in the world to issue dietary guidelines in favor of lowering dietary fat and increasing starch and fiber intake ( Myers et al., 2013 ). These guidelines have largely been followed as dietary carbohydrate content has gradually increased at the expense of fat ( Johnston et al., 2014 ). Despite the scientific and dietary progress in

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Gianna Ligouri, Todd Shoepe and Hawley Almstedt

References Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL. Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the united states: Third national health and nutrition examination survey, phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data, 1994: 1-28. Almstedt HC, Canepa JA, Ramirez DA, Shoepe TC. Changes in bone mineral density in response to 24 weeks of resistance training in college-age men and women. J Strength Cond Res, 2011; 25: 1098

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Lore Metz, Thomas Deleuze, Bruno Pereira and David Thivel

(3): 193-196 Chaput JP, Drapeau V, Poirier P, Teasdale N, Tremblay A. Glycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake: association with knowledge-based work. Psychosom Med , 2008; 70(7): 797-804 Chaput JP, Tremblay A. Acute effects of knowledge-based work on feeding behavior and energy intake. Physiol Behav , 2007; 90(1): 66-72 Chaput JP, Tremblay A. The glucostatic theory of appetite control and the risk of obesity and diabetes. Int J Obes (Lond) , 2009; 33(1): 46-53 da Silva AI, Fernandes LC, Fernandez R. Energy expenditure and intensity

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Tomasz Podgórski, Jakub Kryściak, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Ryszard Strzelczyk and Maciej Pawlak

Abstract

Post-physical training changes in iron metabolism in the human body often occur. To fully describe these processes, fifteen male Polish National Team field hockey players (age 27.7 ± 5.2 years, body mass 72.8 ± 7.6 kg and body height 177.1 ± 5.7 cm) were examined in three phases of an annual training cycle: preparatory (T1), competitive (T2) and transition (T3). To assess aerobic fitness, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated. Based on the iron concentration, the changes in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) and other selected haematological indicators (haemoglobin, erythrocytes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin - MCH) in iron metabolism were estimated. The average values of maximum oxygen uptake increased from 54.97 ± 3.62 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T1 to 59.93 ± 3.55 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T2 (p<0.05) and then decreased to 56.21 ± 4.56 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T3 (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes in the erythrocyte count were noted. The MCH and haemoglobin concentration decreased between T1 and T2. The maximal exercise test caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma iron concentration during the competition and transition phases. Progressive but non-significant increases in resting iron concentration, TIBC and UIBC in the analysed annual training cycle were noted. To show global changes in iron metabolism in the human body, it is necessary to determine additional variables, i.e. UIBC, TIBC, haemoglobin, MCH or the erythrocyte count. The direction of changes in iron metabolism depends on both the duration and intensity of the physical activity and the fitness level of the subjects. Dietary intake of iron increases the level of this trace element and prevents anaemia associated with training overloads.

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Gehan Elsawy, Osama Abdelrahman and Amr Hamza

., Campinas, 2007; 20(3): 307-315 Hanin I, Ansell GB. Lecithin : Technological, Biological, and Therapeutic Aspects, Plenum Press, NY, 180-181; 1987 Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ. Relations between dietary choline or lecithin intake, serum choline levels, and various metabolic indices. Metabolism, 1978; 27(8): 953-960 Huang SH, Johnson K, Pipe AL. The use of Dietary Supplements and Medications by Canadian Athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games. Clin J Sport Med, 2006; 16(1): 27-33 Kanter MM

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Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

References Abood D.A., Conway T.L. Smoking status and body composition, exercise, dietary intake, and alcohol/caffeine consumption. Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California 1992, Report No. 91-22. Bjartveit K., Foss O.P., Gjervig T. The cardiovascular disease study in Norwegian countries: results from first screening. Acta Med Scand. (Suppl.) 1983. 675: 95-130. Blair S.N., Jacobs D.R., Powell K.E. Relationships between exercise or physical activity and other health

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Pablo Lollo, Jaime Amaya-Farfan and Luciano de Carvalho-Silva

exercise. J Appl Physiol, 2000; 88:386-392. Bolster DR, Pikosky MA, Gaine PC, Martin W, Wolfe RR, Tipton KD, et al. Dietary protein intake impacts human skeletal muscle exercise protein fractional synthetic rates after endurance. Am J Physiol Endoc-M, 2005; 289:E678-683. Borsheim E, Tipton KD, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endoc-M, 2002; 283: E648-657. Bradley PS, Mohr M, Bendiksen M, Randers MB, Flindt M, et al. Sub

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Alessandra Amato, Alessia Sacco, Alessandra Macchiarella, Valentina Contrò, Emilia Sabatino, Claudia Galassi and Patrizia Proia

References 1. Maciejewska-Karłowska A. Polymorphic variants of the PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) genes: relevance for athletic performance. Trends Sport Sci. 2013;1(20):5-15. 2. Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance. Nutrition. 2004;20(7-8):669-677; doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.017. 3. Eriksson BO. Physical training, oxygen supply, and muscle metabolism in 11-13-year old boys. Acta Physiol Scand. 1972;384:1-48. 4. Paoli A, Bianco A, Grimaldi KA. The