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Mircea Mureșan, Simona Mureșan, Ioan Balmoș, Daniela Sala, Bogdan Suciu and Arpad Torok

reserved only for specific situations [ 38 ]. ( Figure 3 ) Fig. 3 Surgical and endoscopic treatment indication according to location and perforation size. When oesophageal perforation is suspected, dietary intake and oral hydration are discontinued, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is initiated to prevent infections usually caused by Gram-positive, gramnegative, and anaerobic microorganisms. Antifungal agents are normally prescribed to immunosuppressed patients. Blood culture results will indicate appropriate antibiotic therapy [ 29 , 38