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V Ferencikova and O. Osina

-53. 16. Peng M, Yang X. Controlling diabetes by chromium complexes: The role of the ligands. J Inorg Biochem 2015; 146: 97-103. 17. Eshak ES, Hiroyasu I, Koutatsu M, Muraki I, Tamakoshi A. Associations between dietary intakes of iron, copper and zinc with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A large population-based prospective cohort study. Clin Nutr 2018; 37 (2): 667-74. 18. Lowe J, Taveira-da-Silva R, Hilário-Souza E. Dissecting Copper Homeostasis in Diabetes Mellitus. IUBMB Life 2017; 69 (4): 255-62. 19. Qiu Q, Zhang F, Zhu W, Wu J, Liang M. Copper

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Gautam Rawal and Sankalp Yadav

Nutr 2012; 95: 1385–95. 11. Hallin R, Koivisto-Hursti UK, Lindberg E, Janson C. Nutritional status, dietary energy intake and the risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respir Med 2006; 100: 561–7. 12. Langen RC, Gosker HR, Remels AH, Schols AM. Triggers and mechanisms of skeletal muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2013; 45: 2245–56. 13. Remels AH, Gosker HR, Langen RC, Schols AM. The mechanisms of cachexia underlying muscle dysfunction in COPD. J Appl

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J. David Spence

-conscious individuals [ 6 ] , both dietary cholesterol and egg consumption significantly increased coronary risk. In animal models, dietary cholesterol causes atherosclerosis [ 7 – 9 ] . A single jumbo (65 g) egg yolk contains 237 mg of cholesterol. This is more than the recommended daily intake of cholesterol, and nearly as much as the 275 mg of cholesterol in the dietary monstrosity, the Hardee’s Monster Thickburger, which contains 12 ounces of beef, three slices of cheese, and four slices of bacon. Obviously the burger, which also contains saturated fat, is more harmful than the

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Mahmoud Arshad, Sara Jaberian, Abdolreza Pazouki, Sajedeh Riazi, Maryam Aghababa Rangraz and Somayyeh Mokhber

, BALFE A, MCMAHON C. Evaluation of serum transferring receptor assay in a centralized iron screening service . Clin Lab Haem. 2005; 27 : 190–4. 8. WISH JB. Assessing iron status: beyond serum ferritin and transferrin saturation . Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 1 (Suppl): S4–S8. 9. MENZIE CM, YANOFF LB, DENKINGER BI, et al. Obesity-related hypoferremia is not explained by differences in reported intake of heme and nonheme iron or intake of dietary factors that can affect iron absorption . J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108 :145–148. 10. YANOFF LB, MENZIE

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Fiastuti Witjaksono, Marcellus Simadibrata, Widjaja Lukito, Andi Wijaya and Fariz Nurwidya

. BOWEN J., NOAKES M., CLIFTON PM. Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91 :2913-9. 19. TENTOLOURIS N., KOKKINOS A., TSIGOS C. Differential effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate content isoenergetic meals on plasma active ghrelin concentrations in lean and obese women . Hormone Metabol Res. 2004; 36 :559-63. 20. MAIER C., RIEDL M., VILA G. Cholinergic regulation of ghrelin and peptide YY release may be

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Kristaps Erglis, Iveta Mintale, Ieva Briede, Aldis Rozenbergs, Sanda Jegere, Inga Narbute, Eriks Jakobsons, Vilnis Dzerve, Martins Erglis, Iveta Bajāre and Andrejs Erglis

References [1] Artaud-Wild SM, Connor SL, Sexton G, Connor WE. Differences in coronary mortality can be explained by differences in cholesterol and saturated fat intakes in 40 countries but not in France and Finland. A paradox. Circulation 1993;88:2771-27. [2] Hollman PC, Geelen A, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonol intake may lower stroke risk in men and women. J Nutr 2010;140:600-4; [3] Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2009; 2

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Massimo Vincenzi, Irene Del Ciondolo, Elisa Pasquini, Katia Gennai and Barbara Paolini

months of observation there weren’t any adverse effects and all the patients completed all the followups. At t0, the intake of nutrients and of FODMAPs was similar in the 2 groups. During the observational period, we obviously had a great change in the dietary habits of the participants. In group A, we had a great reduction of the intake of all kinds of FODMAPs, and a reduction in the carbohydrate and fiber intake as well; this result was less evident in group B. We didn’t have any relevant variations on fat and protein intake in the 2 groups ( Table 6 ). Table 6

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Ludovico Abenavoli, Natasa Milic, Francesco Luzza, Luigi Boccuto and Antonino De Lorenzo

treatments have been proposed for the treatment of NAFLD, but the reported results are inconclusive.[ 7 ] International recommendations indicate that the first therapeutic step for the treatment of NAFLD is to reduce the intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids and fructose, along with undergoing physical activity[ 8 ] Mediterranean Diet The profile of NAFLD patients is characterized by higher dietary energy and higher simple carbohydrate intake, as compared with the healthy controls[ 3 , 9 ] The standard care to treat NAFLD patients is focused

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Undurti N. Das

intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as IL-6 was in healthy men [ 24 ] suggests that low-grade systemic inflammation occurs in hypertension. In a similar fashion, plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are elevated in subjects with type 2 diabetes, indicating the existence of low-grade systemic inflammation in diabetics too [ 25 ] . Dietary glycemic load is significantly and positively associated with plasma CRP (26), suggesting that hyperglycemia induces inflammation. Since low-grade systemic

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Aysun Aybal Kutlugun, Fatma Ayerden Ebinc, Mujgan Tek Ozturk, Fatma Kaplan Efe, İbrahim Karadag, Murat Eser, Oktay Unsal and Serdar Karakaya

, also in a nondiabetic, nonhypertensive population, and an independent indicator of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity . J Intern Med. 2001; 249 :519–26. 14. KOROSHİ A. Microalbuminuria, is it so important? Hippokratia. 2007; 3 :105-7. 15. WRONE EM, CARNETHON MR, PANALİAPPAN LP, et al. Association of dietary protein intake and microalbuminuria in healthy adults: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey . Am J Kid Dis. 2003; 41 :580–587. 16. JONES CA, FRANCİS ME, EBERHARDT MS, CHAVERS B, CORESH J, ENGELGAU M