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Marija Aja Kocuvan Mijatov and Dušanka Mičetić-Turk

, fats, carbohydrates) and the lack of some macro - and microelements and vitamins ( 4 , 5 ). Predominantly, the patients lack a proper intake of dietary fiber, iron, unsaturated fatty acids, calcium, and certain vitamins (B12, A, D, E, K) ( 6 ). This is related to decreased mineral bone density and increased potential for obesity ( 4 , 7 ). Vitamin deficiency also increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in the same way as hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia ( 8 ). With the advances in knowledge about the possibilities of improving the quality of GF

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Mustapha Diaf, Méghit Boumediene Khaled and Feriel Sellam

, Broom JI, Speakman JR, Johnstone AM. Dietary intake and self-reporting relation to eating behaviour in obese and type 2 diabetes patients. Baltic Endocrinology 2: 24-30, 2006. Accessed at : http://www.abdn.ac.uk/energeticsresearch/publications/pdf_docs/247.pdf, 2015. 33. Tounian P. L’obésité de l’enfant, John Libbey Eurotext, Paris, pp 196, 2006. 34. García-Meseguer MJ, Burriel FC, García CV, Serrano-Urrea R. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population. Appetite 78: 156-64, 2014. 35. Ruhee D

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Marzena Malara, Joanna Tkaczyk, Anna Kęska, Grażyna Lutosławska and Krzysztof Mazurek

phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1301: 29-35. 10. Calvo M.S., Uribarri J. (2013) Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 98: 6-15. 11. Dai Q., Shu X.O., Deng X., Xiang Y.B., Li H., Yang G., Shrubsole M.J., Ji B., Cai H., Chow W.H., Gao Y.T., Zheng W. (2013) Modifying effect of calcium/magnesi¬um intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study. BMJ, Open.; 3

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Meriem Bencharif, Chaima Boudaoud, Amal Fenaghra and Youcef Benabbas

nutritional habits and energy expenditure in Ramadan. Intl J Food Sci Nutri 51: 125-34, 2000. 5. Waterhouse J, Alkib L, Edwards B, Reilly T . Diurnal changes in sleep, food and fluid intakes, and activity during Ramadan, 2006, in the UK: some preliminary observations. Biol Rhythm Res 39: 449-467, 2008. 6. Hajek P, Myers K, Dhanji AR, West O, McRobbie H . Weight change during and after Ramadan fasting. J Public Health (Oxf) 34: 377-381, 2011. 7. Bencharif M, Dahili K, Benseghir L, Benabbas Y . Effect of Ramadan fasting on dietary intake and physical

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Marzena Malara and Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak

. Lutosławska G., K. Mazurek, A. Kęska, A. Czajkowska, P. Żmijewski (2011) Validity of self-reported dietary intakes in young men and women with different physical activity. Med. Sportiva ., 15: 119-124. 26. Malara M., G. Lutosławska (2010) Physical activity, dietary habits and plasma lipoproteins in young men and women. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig ., 61: 405-412. 27. McNamara D.J. (2000) Dietary cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta ., 1529: 310-320. 28. Mente A., L. de Koning, H.S. Shannon, S.S. Anand (2009) A

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Karolina Slawinska, Gabriela Bielecka, Karol Iwaniak, Sylwia Wosko and Ewa Poleszak

. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;658:145. 10. Capita R, Alonso-Calleja C. Intake of nutrients associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in a Spanish population. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003;54(1):57. 11. Chun OK. Estimation of antioxidant intakes from diet and supplements in U.S. adults. J. Nutr. 2010;140(2):317. 12. Domingo JL, Perello G, Gine Bordonaba J. Dietary intake of metals by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain): results from a duplicate diet study. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012

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Mihaela Posea, Andreea Dragomir, Emilia Rusu, Raluca Nan, Ramona Draguţ, Horaţiu Popescu, Florentina Stoicescu, Ileana Teodoru, Anca Hâncu, Marilena Stoian and Gabriela Radulian

Abstract

Background and Aims To document the nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese people, in order to change dietary habits for acquiring the normal weight. Material and methods We assessed the nutritional content of food intake (kilocalories, vitamins and minerals) in a sample of 124 overweight and obese people and 33 subjects with normal weight. We also measured abdominal circumference, percent of body fat and resting metabolic rate. Results Overweight and obese patients, compared to normal weight, have a significant increased intake of vitamin A (p=0.002), vitamin B1 (p=0.037), vitamin B5 (p=0.047), vitamin C (p=0.029) and vitamin D (p=0.015), sodium (p=0.036), iron (p=0.032) and selenium (p=0.007). The percent of body fat in obese persons is increased (p=0.00001) and very close to abnormal in patients with no weight problems. An increased food intake, above the calculated resting metabolic rate, is associated with a slower metabolism and a rapid resting metabolic rate is often associated with food intake below resting metabolic rate (p=0.002). Conclusions All subjects had imbalanced intake of vitamins and minerals. The normal weight group didn’t achieve the dietary recommendations for vitamins and minerals and we found that these subjects had risk factors for cardiac diseases like increased abdominal circumference, body fat and sodium intake.

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Aleksandra Arsić, Ana Stojanović and Milena Mikić

: Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles and their association with food intakes: results from a cross-sectional study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(1):331-46. 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26834 37. Hodge AM, Simpson JA, Gibson RA, Sinclair AJ, Makrides M, O’Dea K, English DR, Giles GG: Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker of habitual dietary fat intake in an ethnically diverse cohort. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 17(6):415-26. 10.1016/j.numecd.2006.04.005 38

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Evgen Benedik, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Maša Hribar, Irena Rogelj, Borut Bratanič, Rok Orel and Nataša Fidler Mis

References 1. Rosalind SG. Validity in dietary assessment methods. In: Rosalind SG, editor. Principles of nutritional assessment. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005: 149-58. 2. Ferro-Luzzi A. Keynote paper: individual food intake survey methods. FAO Corp Doc Repos. Available September 26, 2014 from: http:// www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e0a.htm#bm10. 3. Chinnock A. Validation of an estimated food record. Public Health Nutr 2007; 9: 934-41. 4. Kobe H, Kržišnik C, Fidler Mis N

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Katarzyna Smolińska, Iwona Dębińska and Piotr Paluszkiewicz

intake of heterocyclic amines and cancer of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003: 12: 940-44. La Vecchia C, Altieri A, Tavani A: Vegetables, fruit, antioxidants and cancer: a review of Italian studies. Eur J Nutr 2001; 40: 261-67. Kasum CM, Jacobs DR, Nicodemus K et al.: Dietary risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Int J Cancer 2002; 99: 267-72. Riboli E, Norat T: Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables