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Albena Merdzhanova, Diana A. Dobreva, Mona Stancheva and Lubomir Makedonski

Catalog (2011), http://wholefoodcatalog.info/food/mussel(raw)/ [25] *** Danish Food Composition Databank, Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute (2009). [26] V. Öhrvik, A. Malmborg, I. Mattisson, S. Wretling and C. Åstrand, Fish, shellfish and fish products - analysis of nutrients, LIVSMEDELS VERKET, NATIONAL FOOD AGENCY, Sweden (2012). [27] *** FNB (2011): Dietary reference intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13050. [28] *** EFSA, Tolerable upper

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Uchechi Bliss Onyedikachi, Chuka Donatus Belonwu and Mattew Owhonda Wegwu

Abstract

This study investigated the potential health risk due to dietary exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the populace living around selected industrial areas in the south eastern states of Nigeria. The concentrations of PAHs were measured in edible food crops using Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The mean concentration of PAHs in food crops collected ranged from < 0.01 to 2.64 ± 0.02, 5.27 ± 0.04, 0.96 ± 0.02, 8.94 ± 0.01 and 1.95 ± 0.06 in mg/kg for Osisioma, Ishiagu, Irete, Akwuuru, and Ngwo respectively. PAHs distributions in food samples analyzed in this study showed vegetables to be significant higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the order vegetables > fruits > nuts > tubers. Total PAHs (ΣPAHs) concentrations in most crop samples had highest values 14.49, 36.29, 4.59, 23.36 and 21.8 mg/kg for Chyrysophyllum albidum, Telferia occidentalis, Vernonia amygdalina, Talinum triangulare and Elaies guinnensis for Osisioma, Akwuuru, Irete, Ishiagu and Ngwo respectively. The low molecular weight-PAHS/high molecular weight-PAHS were < 1 with values 0.76, 0.18, 0.28, 0.91 and 0.12 for Osisioma, Irete, Akwuuru, Ishiagu and Ngwo respectively. 58.3% and 71.7% of ΣB(a)P and ΣPAHs in food samples in the study areas exceeded the permissible limits set by DPR and EU. The estimated daily intake of PAHs via the ingestion of food crops were within the tolerable range. The carcinogenic risk values for the food crops were within the predicted permissible lifetime risks of carcinogen (10−6-10−4) for adults and children in Osisioma, Akwuuru, Ishiagu and Enugu respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the populace around industrialized areas in South Eastern Nigeria, may be at risk due to PAHs exposure through food consumption.

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Ana Leahu, Cristina Ghinea, Mircea-Adrian Oroian and Cristina Damian

. Cabrera, F. Lloris, R. Gimenez, M. Olalla, M.C. Lopez, Mineral content in legumes and nuts: contribution to the Spanish dietary intake, Science of the Total Environment 308 (2003) 1-14. [11]. M.C. Houston, K. J. Harper, Potassium, magnesium, and calcium: their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension, The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 10 (2008) 3-11. [12]. C. Bvenura, A.J. Afolayan, Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cultivated in home gardens in the Eastern Cape, South African Journal of Science 108 (2012) 1

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O. Roots

, 355-361. 3. Rylander, L., Hagmar, L. (1995). Mortality and cancer incidence among women with a high consumption of fatty fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Scand. J. Work Environ, Health., 21 , 419-425. 4. Rylander, L., Strömberg, U., Hagmar, L. (1995). Decreased birth weight among infants born to women with a high dietary intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, 21 , 368-375. 5. Ryan, J., Amirova, Z. (2001). Gender of children of

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Milada Rakická, Ernest Šturdík and Andrea Marko

and technology, 3rd edn. AACCInternational, Inc, St. Paul, pp 40-85. Dewanto XZ, Liu RH (2002) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50: 4959-4964. Dexter JE, Wood PJ (1996) Trends in Food Science and Technology 7: 35-41. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) 2011 Available at: http://faostat.fao.org/ site/368/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=368. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2001). Dietary reference intakes. Proposed defi nition of dietary fi ber. A report of

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Albena Merdzhanova, Diana A. Dobreva and Veselina Panayotova

. [9]. BDS EN ISO 12966-4:2015. Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters - Part 4: Determination by capillary gas chromatography, 30 pp. [10]. D.A. Dobreva, V. Panayotova, R. Stancheva, M. Stancheva, 112. Simultaneous HPLC determination of fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids and cholesterol in seaweed and mussel tissue, Bulgarian Chemical Communications 49 (2017) 112-117. [11]. A. Simopoulos, Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome

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Albena Merdzhanova, Veselina Panayotova, Diana A. Dobreva, Rostitsa Stancheva and Katya Peycheva

-4:2015. Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters - Part 4: Determination by capillary gas chromatography, 30 pp. [14]. D.A. Dobreva, V. Panayotova, R. Stancheva and M. Stancheva, Simultaneous HPLC determination of fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids and cholesterol in seaweed and mussel tissue, Bulgarian Chemical Communications 49 (2017) 112-117. [15]. A. Simopoulos, Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and