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Tiago Barbosa, Jorge Morais, Mário Costa, Jean Mejias, Daniel Marinho and António Silva

References Barbosa TM, Fernandes RJ, Keskinen KL, Colaço P, Cardoso C, Silva J, Vilas-Boas JP. Evaluation of the energy expenditure in competitive swimming strokes. Int J Sports Med , 2006; 27: 894-899 Barbosa TM, Fernandes RJ, Morouço P, Vilas-Boas JP. Predicting the intra-cyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass from segmental velocities in butterfly stroke: a pilot study. J Sport Sci Med , 2008; 7: 201-209 Barbosa TM, Costa MJ, Marques MC, Silva AJ, Marinho DA. A

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Marek Rejman, Andrzej Klarowicz and Krystyna Zatoń

Performance, 1986, Vol. 2, Chapt. 31, 323-339. Zawadzki J., Siemieński A., Maximal frequency, amplitude, kinetic energy and elbow joint stiffness in cyclic movements. Acta Bioeng Biomech , 2010, 12 (2), 55-63. Starosta W., Movement symmetry in technical and tactical preparation of advanced judoists. Performance. Journal of Ege University School of Physical Education and Sports , 1996, 2 (2), 39-46. Bloedel J. R., Bracha V., On the cerebellum, cutaneomuscular reflexes, movement control and the

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Jorge Morais, Mário Costa, Erik Mejias, Daniel Marinho, António Silva and Tiago Barbosa

References Baldari C, Bonavolontà V, Emerenziani GP, Gallotta MC, Silva AJ, Guidetti L. Accuracy, reliability, linearity of Accutrend and Lactate Pro versus EBIO plus analyzer. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2009; 107: 105-111 Barbosa TM, Fernandes RJ, Morouço P, Vilas-Boas JP. Predicting the intra-cyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass from segmental velocities in butterfly stroke: a pilot study. J Sport Sci Med, 2008; 7: 201-209 Barbosa TM, Bragada JA, Reis VM, Marinho DA

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Marcio Santos and Alexander Aruin

Res 1121: 200-206 Courtine G., De Nunzio A. M., Schmid M., Beretta M. V., Schieppati M. (2007) Stance- and locomotion-dependent processing of vibration-induced proprioceptive inflow from multiple muscles in humans. J Neurophysiol 97: 772-779 Flanagan J. R., Wing A. M. (1995) The stability of precision grip forces during cyclic arm movements with a hand-held load. Exp Brain Res 105: 455-464 Flanagan J. R., Wing A. M. (1997) The role of internal models in motion planning and control

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Łukasz Wądrzyk, Leszek Nosiadek and Robert Staszkiewicz

-242. 14. Leblanc H, Seifert L, Chollet D. Does floatation influence breaststroke technique? J Appl Biomech. 2010;26(2): 150-158; doi: 10.1123/jab.26.2.150. 15. Feitosa WG, Costa MJ, Morais JE, Garrido ND, Silva AJ, Lima AB, et al. A mechanical speedo-meter to assess swimmer’s horizontal intra-cyclic velocity: validation for breaststroke and butterfly stroke. In: Shiang TY, Ho WH, Huang PC, Tsai CL (eds.), 31 International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, Taipei 2013. Available from:

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Paulo de Freitas, Vennila Krishnan and Slobodan Jaric

References Augurelle A. S., Smith A. M., Lejeune T., Thonnard J. L. Importance of cutaneous feedback in maintaining a secure grip during manipulation of hand-held objects. J Neurophysiol , 2003. 89, 665-71. Babin-Ratte S., Sirigu A., Gilles M., Wing A. Impaired anticipatory finger grip-force adjustments in a case of cerebellar degeneration. Exp Brain Res , 1999. 128, 81-5. Bagesteiro L. B., Sainburg R. L. Handedness: dominant arm advantages in control of limb dynamics. J

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Vladimir Lyakh, Kazimierz Mikołajec, Jerzy Sadowski, Zbigniew Witkowski, Dariusz Gierczuk and Karol Gryko

strain and coordination complexity; anaerobic and aerobic systems of energy generation in untrained people and athletes from different sports: cyclic, acyclic, speed and strength sports, team sports and combat sports. In Chapter 11, Platonov describes the development of knowledge in terms of such problems as training loads and competitive loads, active and passive recovery in the work-recovery systems; specific nature of adaptive responses of the athlete’s body to any loads; the effect of loads on the athlete’s body depending on the level of sports skill and stage of

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Mark L. Latash

line, the torque-angle joint characteristic similar to the one illustrated in Figure 3 . The intercept of the line will correspond to the r-command at the given movement phase, while the slope will reflect the c-command. This procedure can be repeated across phases resulting in samples of the r- and c-commands, which can be interpolated to produce r(t) and c(t) time functions. This method has been applied to discrete single-joint movements over different distances and at different speeds ( Latash and Gottlieb, 1991 , 1992 ), as well as to cyclical joint movements

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Milan Čoh, Stanislav Peharec, Petar Bačić and Krzyszfof Mackala

as take-off velocity and acceleration ( Fortier et al., 2010 ; Guissard and Hainaut, 1992 ; Harland and Steele, 1997 ; Mero et al., 2006 ). Among these variables, Tellez and Doolittle (1984) documented that take-off acceleration accounted for 64% of the total time in a 100 m sprint. However, determining the optimal relationship between the body position and initial acceleration in the first two to five steps represents a specific biomechanical paradigm, where a sprinter has to integrate temporal and spatial acyclic movements into a cyclic action ( Harald and

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Cheryl Sihui Tay and Pui Wah Kong

Introduction Crew boat racing has a long history in many parts of the world through various forms such as kayaking, rowing, outrigger canoeing and dragon boat racing. In a crew boat, two or more individuals use oars or paddles to propel the boat. Sprint kayaking is an Olympic sport where the two-seater (K2) and four-seater (K4) crew boats race, in addition to the one-seater kayak (K1). Sprint kayakers perform forward strokes cyclically on alternate sides with a double-bladed paddle. There are complexities associated with racing in crew boats that are not