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Lixue Zou, Li Wang, Yingqi Wu, Caroline Ma, Sunny Yu and Xiwen Liu

Seoul National University KR 392 University 2004–2016 49% Raman spectra; Surface structure; Electric conductivity Capacitors; Intercalation; Conducting polymers Tohoku University JP 370 University 1998–2016 26% Band structure; Electric conductivity; Fermi level Far–IR detectors; Grain size; Hot electrons Hunan University CN 368 University 2001–2016 61% Nanoparticles; Nanocomposites; Cyclic voltammetry Lithium-ion secondary batteries; Mid-IR spectra; Chemical potential Tianjin University CN 359

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Xiaojun Hu and Ronald Rousseau

; Lodh & Battaggion, 2014 ; Breschi, Lissoni, & Malerba, 2003 ). When using diversity indexes to measure the technological breadth and depth of a firm, it may happen that results are biased downwards for small and medium-sized firms for which the scale of technological activities is small ( Chen, Jang, & Wen, 2010 ; Hu & Rousseau, 2015 ; Miller, 2006 ; Palokangas, 2011 ). Moreover, diversity indices such as the Rao-Stirling index may show cyclical patterns that are not related to a company’s profits but are rather related to the number of inventors ( Leydesdorff

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Xianlei Dong, Jian Xu, Ying Ding, Chenwei Zhang, Kunpeng Zhang and Min Song

concept of “seasonality” that describes the observable patterns of topical tendency over time. Seasonality helps us understand a topic’s cyclic changes by accounting for fluctuation in its own dynamics. A number of seasonality findings have been presented in the economics and engineering literature. For example, Scott and Varian (2014) proposed a nowcasting (a contraction of “now” and “forecasting”) model commonly used in economics and meteorology to separate tendency, seasonality, and regression effects from economic phenomena. Analyzing topic seasonality is critical