section 200 perimeter at up to 5 levels, depending on the height of individual walls, symmetrically both inside and on the outside. The whole structure will be circumferentially reinforced at the cut-off level against the action of hydraulic jacks, acting synchronously with each other to symmetrically lift the structure off the ground. The raised structure should be fastened (perpendicular to the main axis of the building) to two HEB 300x300 I-sections (about 3 metres from the external walls of the building), which will be used to move the building. A door on the west
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
graffiti as ‘art crimes’. Similarly, K. -J. Lombard (2012 : 261) separates graffiti into two forms, namely graffiti as urban/aerosol art ‘which is legal and commissioned by property owners’, and graffiti as vandalism ‘which is a crime committed mainly by young people’. G. Vanderveen & G. Van Eijk (2015 : 108) agree, but also believe that ‘there is no clear-cut distinction between graffiti and street art’.
In the context of this article, the application of graffiti is viewed to be illegal. We follow the definition of the Oxford Dictionary, which states that graffiti
deep) had to be covered in layers of Styrofoam in order to produce a flat surface on the façade. In the areas where historic steel balcony balustrades’ were embedded in the external walls, the contractors were requested to cutoff side flower baskets, destroying the original design. Analysis of samples of the plaster layers and a thorough search of the colours used for Warsaw’s tenement buildings at the time showed that the original main colour of the façade was light salmon pink stucco. The building’s socle was rather high (140 cm), constructed from an off
. Such examples should be remembered, especially when compared to good examples. The need for the revitalization of such strip-barriers will arise sooner or later but will be costly and complicated. It is better therefore not to allow such problems to arise.
Another specific example of linear revitalization, due to its unusual history, is the new development along the former Berlin Wall which for political reasons cut this European metropolis in half for nearly three decades. The terrain surrounding the Wall became a barrier in many contexts: spatial, social