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First description of histopathological lesions associated with a fatal infection of moose (Alces alces) with the liver fluke Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha Ejsmont, 1932

extrahepatic bile ducts. Cross-sections of the liver parenchyma were taken, cutting it perpendicularly to the bile ducts. Isolation and identification of trematodes and their eggs . After examination, the liver was cut into small pieces. Each slice was compressed so that flukes exited the bile ducts and was then rinsed with water. Mature flukes and eggs were then isolated from the decanted liver sediment as protocolled by Dróżdż ( 2 ). Trematodes were identified by morphometrical features ( 4 , 18 ) and counted under a stereoscopic microscope (PZO, Poland) at 10

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Effects of ketosis in dairy cows on blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, and digestive capacity

adipose tissue suggested increased content of milk fat and changed milk fatty acid composition, and also caused decreased milk protein content ( 6 , 25 ). Several authors reported that ketosis decreases both milk lactose yield and lactose percentage ( 4 ), and high availability of blood glucose and a cow’s positive metabolic energy status are always translated into high milk lactose yield and lactose percentage ( 18 ). A high milk fat : protein ratio is considered to be a signifier of a high risk of ketosis in dairy cattle ( 2 ). Research described cut-off points for

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Effects of polymyxin B on clinical signs, serum TNF-α, haptoglobin and plasma lactate concentrations in experimental endotoxaemia in sheep

the preservation of peroxidase activity of haemoglobin procedure, which is directly proportional to the amount of Hp (Tridelta Development Ltd., Ireland). The lowest measuring interval of this test has been determined as 15.6 mg/L by the manufacturer. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured in serum by a solid phase sandwich ELISA (product no. AbC 606 Eurobio AbCys S.A., France). For TNF-α, a cut-off point of 129 ng/L represented 96% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Measurement of lactate was performed in plasma taken from potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride

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