Tiago Barbosa, Mário Costa, Jorge Morais, Marc Moreira, António Silva and Daniel Marinho
How Informative are the Vertical Buoyancy and the Prone Gliding Tests to Assess Young Swimmers' Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Profiles?
The aim of this research was to develop a path-flow analysis model to highlight the relationships between buoyancy and prone gliding tests and some selected anthropometrical and biomechanical variables. Thirty-eight young male swimmers (12.97 ± 1.05 years old) with several competitive levels were evaluated. It were assessed the body mass, height, fat mass, body surface area, vertical buoyancy, prone gliding after wall push-off, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity after a maximal 25 [m] swim. The confirmatory model included the body mass, height, fat mass, prone gliding test, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity. All theoretical paths were verified except for the vertical buoyancy test that did not present any relationship with anthropometrical and biomechanical variables nor with the prone gliding test. The good-of-fit from the confirmatory path-flow model, assessed with the standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), is considered as being close to the cut-off value, but even so not suitable of the theory (SRMR = 0.11). As a conclusion, vertical buoyancy and prone gliding tests are not the best techniques to assess the swimmer's hydrostatic and hydrodynamic profile, respectively.
Karla de Jesus, Helon V. H. Ayala, Kelly de Jesus, Leandro dos S. Coelho, Alexandre I.A. Medeiros, José A. Abraldes, Mário A.P. Vaz, Ricardo J. Fernandes and João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The surface and underwater video images were independently digitised frame-by-frame by the same operator using the Ariel Performance Analysis System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA) (e.g. Sanders et al., 2016 ). Image coordinates were transformed into 2D object-space coordinates with a Direct Linear Transformation algorithm ( Abdel-Aziz and Karara, 1971 ) with six calibration points ( de Jesus et al., 2013 , 2015 ) and a 5 Hz cut-off value has been selected for data filtering (2 nd order low-pass digital filter; de Jesus et al., 2015 ) according to residual
Rahel Ammann, Wolfgang Taube, Matthias Neuhaus and Thomas Wyss
typical cut-off point between good and moderate accuracy was made at 5% of measurement error ( Coutts and Duffield, 2010 ; Duthie et al., 2003 ; Roberts et al., 2006 ). Taking the literature of Scarf (2007) into account and the assertion that 125 m (men) and 100 m (women) of climb, respectively, equal the exercise duration of 1,000 m of horizontal travel, the impact of EIEs on the total workload for men would be < 5% in the GF and the PRS in both positions and in the SA only when worn on the hip (hip / wrist: 1.3 / 4.1%, 2.6 / 3.7%, 4.6 / 5.7 % in the GF, the PRS
) Session 2: Psychological Testing
The aim of the second session was to categorize the athlete’s overall psychological state. This session lasted 90 min and took place in the afternoon following morning training and 1 h after lunch. The session started off on a positive note by discussing the athlete’s motivation and why she believed she had won a gold medal at the Olympics. Afterwards, the differences between the player’s performance at her first Olympics, and gold winning performance during the other Olympics were discussed. Kim commented that one of the main reasons