The 19th century saw an expression of women’s ardent desire for freedom, emancipation and assertion in the public space. Women hardly managed to assert themselves at all in the public sphere, as any deviation from their traditional role was seen as unnatural. The human soul knows no gender distinctions, so we can say that women face the same desire for fulfillment as men do. Today, women are more and more encouraged to develop their skills by undertaking activities within the public space that are different from those that form part of traditional domestic chores. The woman of the 19th century felt the need to be useful to society, to make her contribution visible in a variety of domains. A woman does not have to become masculine to get power. If she is successful in any important job, this does not mean that she thinks like a man, but that she thinks like a woman. Women have broken through the walls that cut them off from public life, activity and ambition. There are no hindrances that can prevent women from taking their place in society.
Kristina Grünenberg and Anna Mikaela v. Freiesleben
The strategy to fight ghettoisation thus created an image of the ghetto as physically cutoff from the rest of society leading to the perception that behind these (imagined) walls, the ghetto would evolve into a parallel society undermining the Danish nation state. A nation state, which in the dominant Danish discourse on integration is often articulated as historically homogeneous. Up until the beginning/mid 19 th century, Denmark was a centralised and multicultural kingdom, encompassing among others the Nothern German duchy Schleswig-Holstein, Norway
section 200 perimeter at up to 5 levels, depending on the height of individual walls, symmetrically both inside and on the outside. The whole structure will be circumferentially reinforced at the cut-off level against the action of hydraulic jacks, acting synchronously with each other to symmetrically lift the structure off the ground. The raised structure should be fastened (perpendicular to the main axis of the building) to two HEB 300x300 I-sections (about 3 metres from the external walls of the building), which will be used to move the building. A door on the west
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
graffiti as ‘art crimes’. Similarly, K. -J. Lombard (2012 : 261) separates graffiti into two forms, namely graffiti as urban/aerosol art ‘which is legal and commissioned by property owners’, and graffiti as vandalism ‘which is a crime committed mainly by young people’. G. Vanderveen & G. Van Eijk (2015 : 108) agree, but also believe that ‘there is no clear-cut distinction between graffiti and street art’.
In the context of this article, the application of graffiti is viewed to be illegal. We follow the definition of the Oxford Dictionary, which states that graffiti
Alessandro Figus, Andrea Pisaniello and Stefano Mustica
“Ostalgie” is coming from a German word referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany, and not only. It is a new multipurpose and new expression related the German terms “Nostalgie” (nostalgia in Italian) and Ost (East). Its anglicised equivalent, ostalgia, it is rhyming with “nostalgia” and it is also sometimes used. The collapse of Soviet Union and the Berlin Wall destruction, was the concept protected concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from ‘61 to ’89, It especially divided West and East European countries, the wall cut off West Berlin from almost all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. Formally its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992 and coincides in some generation from the Warsaw Pact countries, legally the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation with the “Mutual Assistance” URSS of the birth of “ostalgie”, that it goes against with modern principle of multicultural society and globalisation of the world. At the eighth congress of the communist party Lenin recognized the right to self-determination of the populations of the empire and promised them significant concessions, although its final intent was to reach the true dictatorship of the proletariat which would have rendered the ethnic-national distinctions useless. The Soviet Union became the incubator of new nations with the dissolving of the Russian nation in the Soviet state. Does the “ostalgie” refer to the USSR, is this compatible with multiculturalism? Is it compatible with that plurality of tending different cultures that coexists in mutual respect and which implies the preservation of their specific traits by rejecting any type of homologation or fusion in the dominant culture?
deep) had to be covered in layers of Styrofoam in order to produce a flat surface on the façade. In the areas where historic steel balcony balustrades’ were embedded in the external walls, the contractors were requested to cutoff side flower baskets, destroying the original design. Analysis of samples of the plaster layers and a thorough search of the colours used for Warsaw’s tenement buildings at the time showed that the original main colour of the façade was light salmon pink stucco. The building’s socle was rather high (140 cm), constructed from an off
. Such examples should be remembered, especially when compared to good examples. The need for the revitalization of such strip-barriers will arise sooner or later but will be costly and complicated. It is better therefore not to allow such problems to arise.
Another specific example of linear revitalization, due to its unusual history, is the new development along the former Berlin Wall which for political reasons cut this European metropolis in half for nearly three decades. The terrain surrounding the Wall became a barrier in many contexts: spatial, social
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