Iman Faridmehr, Mohammad Reza YazdaniPour, Mohammad Javadi Jokar and Togay Ozbakkaloglu
Karkheh Dam, Iran.
Cross-section and connection details between the cutoff wall and dam foundation.
Longitudinal section of Karkheh Dam showing dam geological layers.
Restoration of the reservoir in 2001 and following attainment of the reservoir level of 210.5 masl, considering the normal water level (220 masl), was related to extreme seepage over the foundation and abutments along with unacceptable hydraulic gradient (0.2). Accordingly, the extending of the cut-offwall system was taken into account through providing four new
vertical bentonite barriers for old sanitary landfill containment , Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Praha, 2003, Vol. 1, 409-414.
 SOGA K., JOSHI K., Long-term Performance of cement-bentonite cut-offwalls: A case study , Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, New Delhi, 2010, Vol. 1, 151-164.
 Van GENUCHTEN M.T., A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil , Soil Science Society Journal, 1980
Tomasz Strzelecki, Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz, Michał Strzelecki, Eugeniusz Sawicki and Łukasz Maniecki
isotropic medium in an elastic flow regime, which has been discussed in many works, including those of Polubarinova-Kochina P. J. (1962) and Wieczysty A. (1982) . This model is widely used in the example by Strzelecki (2014) for modelling of airport drainage system, also as its simplified 2D version, by Moharrami et al. (2015) for finding optimal geometry of cutoffwalls or Khalili Shayan & Amiri-Tokaldany (2015) for investigating the effectiveness of methods of reducing seepage and uplift pressure.
Due to the fact that the finite
anchors are progressively cutoff. Results of all simulations carried out show that once the foundation raft is installed, bending moments in the wall are decreasing. Therefore, the results for all of these time instances are not important in further structure dimensioning. It has to be emphasised here that each major excavation stage was carried out in three steps (maximum two layers of elements were removed in one computational step). In all simulations, the following HS model parameters for the subsoil were used:
E 0 r e f = 328000 kPa , ν = 0.2 , E 50 r e f
cut-off from the tank after the disaster. The vertical weld joining the detached connector to the carriage of the tower was of poor quality, and only the horizontal weld was of standard value ( Figure 3 ).
Details of connector welding: 1 and 2, fillet welds in the broken lap joint (1, low-quality weld; 2, proper quality weld); 3, double fillet weld
2 Computational models
The computational model of a system tank – four towers made in the computer programme Robot – is shown in Figure 4 .
Model of a system tank-four towers
Łukasz Herezy, Dariusz Janik and Krzysztof Skrzypkowski
longwall face. Depending on their actual arrangement, pressure increase in shield legs follows a different pattern, which is mostly associated with the depth of cut, ranging from 0.01 to 0.25 m (from 0.65 to 1.2 m for shearer). Predicted plots of operating pressure p r variations with time for the coal plough support are shown in Figure 2 .
Predicted operating pressure p r of the plough support Source: Author’s own sources.
Once the shields are set against the roof, pressure increases within the time t 1 reaching the initial load
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