along the town streets and other communication routes.
A special role was played here by gutters and waste water troughs — which enabled horizontal transportation of pollutants — and also other structures (e.g. walls) that cut through layers made from compact loam and organic formations, which facilitated the seeping of pollutants into the ground. Pollutant migration could take place both at the time the pollutants were created (generally speaking, when the metals were produced, worked with and traded), and in later centuries, when metal particles were deposited in
of the mortar:
extremely resistant, hard mortars were taken using a core drill of 50 mm in diameter designed for wet cutting (generally Gallo-Roman mortars or mortars from narrow joints where other ways of sampling are difficult to carry out)
more fragile mortars were sampled by means of a chisel and a hammer
highly brittle mortars were scraped off from an inner part of a wall after removing a surface layer, all the procedure being performed under dark light conditions (a dark area or an impervious canvas)
The use of a core drill
Piotr Moska, Grzegorz Adamiec, Zdzisław Jary and Andrzej Bluszcz
procedures include collection of samples for luminescence dating from a clean vertical section using thin-walled steel pipes from an Eijkelkamp system. At the same time, about 1 kg of loess was taken into plastic bags from around the tubes for gamma spectrometry.
In addition, six samples were collected for radiocarbon dating from the upper part of the profile. Four of them were collected from the L1L1 loess formation and two samples from the L1S1 soil formation. Each sample contained about 2 kg of raw loess or soil material. Samples for grain-size distribution, carbonate
Iman Faridmehr, Mohammad Reza YazdaniPour, Mohammad Javadi Jokar and Togay Ozbakkaloglu
Karkheh Dam, Iran.
Cross-section and connection details between the cutoff wall and dam foundation.
Longitudinal section of Karkheh Dam showing dam geological layers.
Restoration of the reservoir in 2001 and following attainment of the reservoir level of 210.5 masl, considering the normal water level (220 masl), was related to extreme seepage over the foundation and abutments along with unacceptable hydraulic gradient (0.2). Accordingly, the extending of the cut-offwall system was taken into account through providing four new
vertical bentonite barriers for old sanitary landfill containment , Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Praha, 2003, Vol. 1, 409-414.
 SOGA K., JOSHI K., Long-term Performance of cement-bentonite cut-offwalls: A case study , Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, New Delhi, 2010, Vol. 1, 151-164.
 Van GENUCHTEN M.T., A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil , Soil Science Society Journal, 1980
Tomasz Strzelecki, Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz, Michał Strzelecki, Eugeniusz Sawicki and Łukasz Maniecki
isotropic medium in an elastic flow regime, which has been discussed in many works, including those of Polubarinova-Kochina P. J. (1962) and Wieczysty A. (1982) . This model is widely used in the example by Strzelecki (2014) for modelling of airport drainage system, also as its simplified 2D version, by Moharrami et al. (2015) for finding optimal geometry of cutoffwalls or Khalili Shayan & Amiri-Tokaldany (2015) for investigating the effectiveness of methods of reducing seepage and uplift pressure.
Due to the fact that the finite
anchors are progressively cutoff. Results of all simulations carried out show that once the foundation raft is installed, bending moments in the wall are decreasing. Therefore, the results for all of these time instances are not important in further structure dimensioning. It has to be emphasised here that each major excavation stage was carried out in three steps (maximum two layers of elements were removed in one computational step). In all simulations, the following HS model parameters for the subsoil were used:
E 0 r e f = 328000 kPa , ν = 0.2 , E 50 r e f
cut-off from the tank after the disaster. The vertical weld joining the detached connector to the carriage of the tower was of poor quality, and only the horizontal weld was of standard value ( Figure 3 ).
Details of connector welding: 1 and 2, fillet welds in the broken lap joint (1, low-quality weld; 2, proper quality weld); 3, double fillet weld
2 Computational models
The computational model of a system tank – four towers made in the computer programme Robot – is shown in Figure 4 .
Model of a system tank-four towers
Łukasz Herezy, Dariusz Janik and Krzysztof Skrzypkowski
longwall face. Depending on their actual arrangement, pressure increase in shield legs follows a different pattern, which is mostly associated with the depth of cut, ranging from 0.01 to 0.25 m (from 0.65 to 1.2 m for shearer). Predicted plots of operating pressure p r variations with time for the coal plough support are shown in Figure 2 .
Predicted operating pressure p r of the plough support Source: Author’s own sources.
Once the shields are set against the roof, pressure increases within the time t 1 reaching the initial load
Alessandro Figus, Andrea Pisaniello and Stefano Mustica
“Ostalgie” is coming from a German word referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany, and not only. It is a new multipurpose and new expression related the German terms “Nostalgie” (nostalgia in Italian) and Ost (East). Its anglicised equivalent, ostalgia, it is rhyming with “nostalgia” and it is also sometimes used. The collapse of Soviet Union and the Berlin Wall destruction, was the concept protected concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from ‘61 to ’89, It especially divided West and East European countries, the wall cut off West Berlin from almost all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. Formally its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992 and coincides in some generation from the Warsaw Pact countries, legally the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation with the “Mutual Assistance” URSS of the birth of “ostalgie”, that it goes against with modern principle of multicultural society and globalisation of the world. At the eighth congress of the communist party Lenin recognized the right to self-determination of the populations of the empire and promised them significant concessions, although its final intent was to reach the true dictatorship of the proletariat which would have rendered the ethnic-national distinctions useless. The Soviet Union became the incubator of new nations with the dissolving of the Russian nation in the Soviet state. Does the “ostalgie” refer to the USSR, is this compatible with multiculturalism? Is it compatible with that plurality of tending different cultures that coexists in mutual respect and which implies the preservation of their specific traits by rejecting any type of homologation or fusion in the dominant culture?