thing that is in direct conjunction with such ‘aggressive silence’. Despite unusually warm and sunny weather and the large number of parks, lakes, squares and public spaces, citizens of Poznań do not seem to spend a lot of time outdoors (except for recreation and exercise). There were almost no dog-walkers, parents with strollers, no teenagers and students hanging out in parks (alcohol consumption in public spaces was recently prohibited), and no street musicians nor beggars. The only ones who were spending time outdoors aimlessly were we, the foreigners – tourists
additional 590 million people, with the rise of three mega cities along the east coast – the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the National Capital Region (also known as Jing-Jin-Ji). This growth was the combination of a number of processes and reforms in the post-Maoist era including the establishment of Special Economic Zones in support of mass-scale export-led industrialisation, the liberalisation of migration controls, the creation of a land rental market, and the commodification of housing ( Ren 2013 ).
Despite its incremental nature, the
. The first settlements were formed around existing farms, as part of the cultural heritage of the region (Eemstad Boerderij, Prairie Crossing, the Cannery, Bucking Horse), which caused the randomness of its location in the urban structure. At the next stage, elements of the home farm were already incorporated in the design, and the location was influenced by a number of factors related to the aggregate urban tissue, physiographic and environmental conditions, etc. At the present stage of development of this idea, as yet only in the form of the conceptual principles
Katarzyna Goch, Szymon Ochota, Monika Piotrkowska and Zuzanna Kunert
the nearest bus or tram stops was taken into consideration. The calculations assumed a walking speed of 4 km/h.
The model of Warsaw public transport
The model of public transit used in the study was based on data in the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) – a standardised data format for storing public transit routes, stops, and schedules ( ESRI 2018 ). GTFS data is used e.g. in Google Maps transit trip planning or other planning applications. Since 2008 the number of transit agencies sharing open schedule data in common format has increased from barely
Stefania Środa-Murawska, Leszek S. Dąbrowski and Paweł Smoliński
budget. It is a kind of school for democracy and it accustoms students to deciding about the space around them in cooperation with the city authorities.
The results of this research were then used to answer the following questions: 1) How similar are the residents of the different districts of Toruń regarding their acceptance of social participation measured by their involvement in participatory budgeting? 2) Did the number of residents voting on participatory projects tend to increase from year to year? 3) What was the hierarchy of projects, i.e. what types of
linear zones of housing, services and industrial functions); economic (balance of the number of jobs and the working population, good access to workplaces, flexible choice of employment); social (new society, high quality civilization, egalitarianism, egalitarian access to culture and the achievements of civilization, free choice of life style); environmental (ventilation, climate, access to nature, to clean air, water and forests, recreation, tourism); transport (innovative solutions for their time); and cultural (protection of cultural heritage). The aim was, as O
Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska
instruments for regulating the urban transport system are local policies, which have also been developing in certain Polish cities in recent years. One element of such policies is the attempt to regulate parking capacity, which takes place through, for instance, reducing the number of parking spaces available for cars, blocking and rationing access to parking areas, setting a hierarchy of users of public parking spaces, enforcing rotation by introducing parking zones and raising parking tariffs, or introducing increasingly severe environmental norms for gasoline
project, was advertised with the slogan ‘Connectivity’ emphasising the cross-border metropolitan connection between Copenhagen and Malmö, as a clean, fast and reliable link for transnational commuters ( European Commission 2015 ).
The Öresund region is often referred to as a role model for trans-national metropolitan areas with a bi-national and cross-border suburbanisation ( Schmidt 2005 ; Smas & Schmitt 2015: 158 ). The border became less noticeable and the number of daily commuters increased.
In January 2016, the Swedish government reintroduced border controls
; Temelová et al. 2011 ; Kovács & Herfert 2012 ), their wide ranging social structure as well as importance when considering housing options is still generally preserved (see e.g. Kährik & Tammaru 2010 ; Szafrańska 2010 , 2014 ; Marcińczak & Sagan 2011 ; Špaček 2012 ; Kabisch & Grossmann 2013 ; Šimáček et al. 2015 ; Gorczyca 2016 ). Of course, this does not mean that there are no problems regarding HEs and that there are no challenges associated with their renewal and overall future. On the contrary, a huge number of studies have identified and pointed out some of