Transylvania has always been a space of multiculturalism, which is reflected in the fact that the Hungarian regional standard contains more Romanian and German elements than the central standard. And that is not only peculiar to the present state of the language, but it is a historical phenomenon. During the process of editing the Historical Dictionary of the Hungarian Language in Transylvania, Attila Szabó T. and his co-workers realized that the language material gathered from Transylvanian archives contains a number of Hungarian words of Romanian origin that the literature has no knowledge of. Thus came the idea of a smaller dictionary which would present the Romanian loan words of Hungarian spoken in Transylvania in the period of the 16th–19th centuries. By the mid-1980s, the editorial work was finalized; however, it has never been published – the material is kept at the Department of Hungarian and General Linguistics, Babeş–Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. In my paper, I will attempt to present the words of Romanian origin listed in the Historical Dictionary of the Hungarian Language in Transylvania, which the general literature of loan words has no knowledge of in the context of crossing borders, in the sense that neighbouring languages always have a huge impact on each other even if they are completely different genetically.
Suomenniemeltä’, in Moniääninen
Suomi. Kieli, kulttuuri ja identiteetti, eds S Laihiala-Kankainen,
S Pietikäinen & H Dufva, Jyväskylän yliopistopaino, Jyväskylä,
Rampton, B 1995, Crossing. Language and ethnicity among
adolescents, Longman, London/New York.
Rastas, A 2005, ‘Racializing categorization among young
people in Finland’, Young, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 147-166, DOI:
Riitaoja, A-L 2008
A case study of Somali settlement in Lieksa, Finland
Tiina Sotkasiira and Ville-Samuli Haverinen
make a significant difference in how much they can participate in the Finnish society since belonging is based on ethnicity, not citizenship (Open Society Foundations 2013: 102).
Critical studies of citizenship confirm the assumption that what is important is not only that citizenship is a legal status, but that citizenship also involves practices of making citizens and non-citizens (Lister 2003; Al-Sharmani & Horst 2016). However, even as a status, citizenship is a complex concept, and non-citizenship may refer to a number of legal status categories, depending on
Arnfinn H Midtbøen, Nina Gren, MA Kaisa Nissi, Aleksandra Jolkina and Saara Koikkalainen
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.
This book dwells on the experiences of young individuals of Muslim background who, over the past years, have exercised their freedom of expression by their extensive involvement in public debates over Islam in Norway – and the price they have paid for this engagement. In the recent decade, we have witnessed an increasing number of Muslim youth voicing their views on how Muslims are portrayed in the mainstream and new
Kristina Grünenberg and Anna Mikaela v. Freiesleben
the street’ (cf. Rogers and Coaffee 2005 ), set off to acquire funding for other relevant, but less ‘hot’ topics. Such a scenario, in turn, contributes to stereotypical images of young ethnic minority (men) as potentially criminal. It furthermore makes actual changes of practice (e.g., fall in the actual number of youngsters on the street) invisible. This last fact is worthy of a separate methodological article, also reflecting upon researchers contributions to the particular emergence, use of, and perpetuation of terms such as ‘ethnicity’, ‘ethnic minorities
Boundary Work and Belonging in Au Pairs’ Narratives
institution is monitored and regulated by the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI). It distinctly frames rights and obligations of au pairs and host families, such as au pairs’ working and living conditions, the amount of pocket money to which they are entitled and the amount of money they are to be given to cover Norwegian language courses ( UDI 2015 ). Annually, UDI grants about 2,000 au pair permits that are ascribed to a category of study visits. Up to 85% of applicants come from the Philippines, although a number of au pairs from CIS countries, such as Ukraine
Ismo Söderling, Olga Davydova-Minguet, Simo Mannila, Alexandros Sakellariou, Marita Härmälä and Saila Heinikoski
memory, this optic allows us to notice the multi-scalar, complex and non-linear character and interconnectedness of the memory creation processes that can be eventually seen as instances of border-making and border-crossing. To make this even more precise, the editors define three main dynamics that underpin transnational memory production: circulation, articulation and scales, around which the articles of the volume are grouped.
Like other cultural processes, in contemporary globalised societies memory production is both mediated and mediatised. This involves not
thing that is in direct conjunction with such ‘aggressive silence’. Despite unusually warm and sunny weather and the large number of parks, lakes, squares and public spaces, citizens of Poznań do not seem to spend a lot of time outdoors (except for recreation and exercise). There were almost no dog-walkers, parents with strollers, no teenagers and students hanging out in parks (alcohol consumption in public spaces was recently prohibited), and no street musicians nor beggars. The only ones who were spending time outdoors aimlessly were we, the foreigners – tourists
additional 590 million people, with the rise of three mega cities along the east coast – the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the National Capital Region (also known as Jing-Jin-Ji). This growth was the combination of a number of processes and reforms in the post-Maoist era including the establishment of Special Economic Zones in support of mass-scale export-led industrialisation, the liberalisation of migration controls, the creation of a land rental market, and the commodification of housing ( Ren 2013 ).
Despite its incremental nature, the
Agnieszka Szczepańska CDFMR and Katarzyna Pietrzyk CDFPMR
analysis: they were used predominantly by the residents of Old Town district; they were used continuously throughout the day; they built a sense of community and local participation; they promoted integration; they contributed to local identity and positive perceptions of the Old Town district; and they increased the district’s appeal.
The following types of public spaces were identified during the field inventory: traffic routes (streets, footways and driveways, sidewalks, car parks, pedestrian crossings), unorganised green spaces, organised green spaces (squares