Andrej Kormutak, Martina Brana, Martin Galgoci, Peter Manka, Denisa Sukenikova, Jana Libantova and Dusan Gömöry
Salaj, V Camek, P Bolecek and D Gömöry (2009) Seed quality in hybrid swarm populations of Pinus mugo Turra and P. sylvestris L. Plant Systematics and Evolution 277(3-4):245-250 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-008-0121-0
Kormutak A, M Galgoci, P Manka, M Koubova, M Jopcik, M Sukenikova, P Bolecek and D Gőmőry (2017) Field-based artificial crossings indicate partial compatibility of reciprocal crosses between Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo and unexpected chloroplast DNA inheritance. Tree Genetics and Genomes 13(3), article no. 68, ISSN 1614-2942 https
P.G. Suraj, K. Nagabhushana, R. Kamalakannan and M. Varghese
Funda T, Lstibůrek M, Lachout P, Klápště J, El-Kassaby YA (2009) Optimization of combined genetic gain and diversity for collection and deployment of seed orchard crops. Tree Genet Genomes 5: 583–593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-009-0211-3
Gaiotto FA, Bramucci M, Grattapaglia D (1997) Estimation of out-crossing rate in a breeding population of Eucalyptus urophylla with dominant RAPD and AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 95:842–849. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001220050634
Gardner RAW, Little KM, Arbuthnot A (2007) Wood and
Shaun Suitor, B. M. Pott, M. H. Mcgowen, D. J. Pilbeam, P. H. Brown, A. J. Gracie and P. L. Gore
Low and variable capsule and seed set is a major factor limiting seed production in Eucalyptus globulus seed orchards. This study identified the relative contribution of the maternal and paternal parent to reproductive success in E. globulus, and examined the genetic basis to the observed variation. Reproductive success was measured in terms of the number of viable seeds obtained per flower crossed. Data on the reproductive success of numerous genotypes from the Furneaux, Strzelecki Ranges and Otways races were obtained from: (i) 12 years of operational full-sib crossing; (ii) a designed fullsib diallel mating scheme; and (iii) capsule retention trials conducted over three seasons at two Tasmanian seed orchards on the same ramets of different genotypes. Analysis of the sparse operational data revealed that both male and female factors significantly affected reproductive success, accounting for 5.0% and 7.9% of the variation respectively. The more precise diallel crossing revealed that a large, and significant, proportion 55%, of the variation in reproductive success between crosses at a single site was explained by the female parent. The male parent explained only 6.7%, but this effect was not statistically significant and was related to variation in in vitro pollen germination. The significant female effect was found to be consistent at the genotype level across seasons, sites and pollination techniques suggesting a genetic basis to the variation. It is argued that selection of genetically fecund females is a key consideration in reducing costs of manual pollination for breeding and deployment purposes.
by L. F ins , S. T. F riedman and J. V. B rotschol , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
M arcar , N. E., D. C rawford , P. L eppert , T. J ovanovic , R. F loyd and R. F arrow (1995): Trees for Saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia, CSIRO Division of Forestry, Canberra.
M arcar , N. E. and D. F. C rawford (2004): Trees for Saline Landscapes, RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra, Australia.
M arcar , N. E., D. F. C rawford , A. K. M. A. H ossain and A. T. N icholson (2003): Survival and growth of
Controlled crossings were conducted with three Abies nordmanniana genotypes acting as mothers and a pollen mixture of three Abies nordmanniana genotypes and one Abies alba genotype acting as potential fathers. The aim was to investigate hybridization success under circumstances where pollen from both species are present, which is a potential risk in Danish clonal seed orchards of Abies nordmanniana. The number of seeds sired by each father was determined through SSRs and compared to the expected numbers based on the pollen mixture composition. All three mother genotypes of Abies nordmanniana had more progenies with the Abies alba as father (hybrids) than expected, based on proportions in the pollen mix. This indicates that no reproductive barriers between the two species exist, and that seed orchard managers should take precautions to avoid hybrids in seed crops. Furthermore, the experiments revealed quite different siring success of the three Abies nordmanniana genotypes, depending on which clone was the mother. Abies nordmanniana seed orchards should therefore not be established in the vicinity of Abies alba in the flowering age, and if a few-clone set up is chosen, the mating interaction should be investigated beforehand through pollen mix experiments.
P. Pollegioni, K. Woeste, A. Major, G. Scarascia Mugnozza and Maria Emilia Malvolti
Juglans nigra and Juglans regia are economically important species in Europe, Asia and North America. Natural hybrids between the two species, known as Juglans x intermedia (Carr), are valued for timber production. We tested ten nuclear microsatellite markers to (1) identify new J. x intermedia hybrids and characterize their parentage species J. regia and J. nigra (2) detect J. nigra genotypes with a spontaneous crossing ability with J. regia in a mixed Italian population. This study was also designed to confirm the transferability of ten black walnut SSR loci to Persian walnut All ten microsatellites amplified in both species, producing fragments of variable size; eight (7.14%) were common, 68 (60.7%) amplified in J. nigra and 36 (32.1%) in J. regia only (private alleles). Indices of genetic diversity revealed high level of variability. The Principal Coordinate Analysis on the basis of total 112 alleles divided the total sample set into three main groups: J. nigra, J. regia and J. x intermedia hybrids. Performing the microsatellite fingerprinting, a triploid hybrid plant with two genome parts of J. nigra and one part of J. regia was identified. The cytological analysis proved this triploid state showing 48 somatic chromosomes. The mother testing analysis of the 7 diploid hybrids by exclusion method indicated one putative hybridogenic mother plants. The sequence analysis of amplified fragments confirmed the cross-species amplification of SSR. Inter-specific differences between alleles were due not only to simple changes in the number of repeats but also to mutations in the flanking regions.
, Queensland, Austrailia. 27 October-1 November 1996. Edited by M. J. DIETERS, A. C. MATHESON, D. G. NICKLES, C. E. HARWOOD, and S. M. WALKER. pp. 164-168 (1996)
LI, B., McKeand, S. E., and WEIR, R. J.: Tree improvement and sustainable forestry - impact of two cycles of loblolly pine breeding in the USA. Forest Genetics 6: 229-234 (1999)
LINDGREN, D.: Aspects on suitable number of clones in a seed orchard. In: Proc. Joint IUFRO meeting S02.04.1-3. Department of Forest Genetics, Royal Collage of Forestry, Stockholm, pp. 293-305 (1974
C. J. A. Shelbourne, S. Kumar, R. D. Burdon, L. D. Gea and H. S. Dungey
KUMAR, S., S. GERBER, T. E. RICHARDSON and L. GEA (2007): Testing for unequal paternal contributions using nuclear and chloroplast SSR markers in polycross families of radiata pine. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 207-214.
LIBBY, W. J. (1964): Clonal selection and an alternative seed orchard scheme. Silvae Genet. 13: 32-40.
LINDGREN, D., L. D. GEA and P. A. JEFFERSON (1996): Effective number and coancestry in breeding populations following within family selection. Silvae Genet. 45: 52-59.
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ANDERSSON, E., JANSSON, R. and LINDGREN. D. (1974): Some results from second generation crossings involving inbreeding in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Silvae Genet. 23: 34-43.
ASKEW, G. R. and BURROWS, P. M. (1983): Minimum coancestry selection I. A Pinus taeda population and its simulation. Silvae Genet. 32: 125-131.
BURCZYK, J. and CHALUPKA, W. (1997): Flowering and cone production variability and its effect on parental balance in a Scots pine clonal seed orchard. Ann. Sci. For. 54: 129
Chunfa Tong, Guangxin Liu, Liwei Yang and Jisen Shi
GILBERT, N. E. (1958): Diallel cross in plant breeding. Heredity 12: 477-492.
GRIFFING, B. (1956a): Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 9: 463-493.
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HALLAUER, A. R. and J. B. MIRANDA (1981): Quantitative genetics in maize breeding. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IO.
HUBER, D. A., T. L. WHITE, R. C. LITTELL and G