, we focus on the territory of the Jizera Mountains which is currently shared by Czechia and Poland.
The main objective of this article is thus to analyze the depiction of borders on old maps from the beginning of the 20th century in the light of Martinez’s (1994) approach to the typology of borders. As we have been working with old tourist maps, we also focus on elements of tourist infrastructure and tourist routes crossing the border. The studied region currently comprises the Czech–Polish Jizera Mountains. However, the region was inhabited mainly by German
Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.
Poland and Russia, supported by Germany, applied to the EU for small border traffic to cover the entire territory of the Oblast. According to the European Commission, the proposed solution would be a European exception. The agreement on small border traffic came into force on July 27, 2012, covering the entire area of the Kaliningrad Oblast and selected Polish poviats of Pomerania and Warmia-Mazuria voivodeships. Towards the end of the first quarter of 2013, the number of Poles crossing the border showed a rising tendency, and starting from the second through the third quarter of 2013, the number of Russians coming to Poland grew more dynamically.
The visits of Kaliningrad residents, apart from commercially oriented ones, also include recreation, tourism, medical tourism visits, etc. Kaliningrad citizens looking for leisure, recreation and entertainment come to participate in great sporting and cultural events in Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. The local self governments of poviats covered by small border traffic noted a clear upturn in the economies and trade of their regions.
The development of cross-border cooperation, including small border traffic, has not resulted in attracting a substantial number of Polish tourists to the Kaliningrad Oblast, but it has provided such a possibility. This region is quite expensive for the average Pole. However, as scientists from Kaliningrad projected, with the easing of the visa system and the development of transport and tourist infrastructure the role of tourism shows a growing trend.
Idealised 500 hPa contour defining the Vangenheim-Girs macro-forms (W – solid line, C – dotted line, and E – dashed line) over the Northern Hemisphere (after Lamb 1972 )
In this paper we argue that VG macro-forms can be treated as factors shaping the SLP field and as such determine the anemological conditions of the lower troposphere in the profile crossing Central Europe from Ireland to Kazan in Russia (5°30’W–44°00’E) ( Fig. 2 ). This profile approximately comprises the section of the 50–60°N zone in which the trough/ridge axes of Rossby
The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.
Danuta Guzal-Dec, Magdalena Zwolińska-Ligaj and Łukasz Zbucki
structure of the local market. However, their functioning should be based on the conceptual and technological transformation of the products and services offered (broadening, changing the concept, increasing the number of recipients, using new technologies in creation and sales), resulting in an increase in their value (valorization). Among the industries that can be a stimulus for intelligent rural development, those of health, recreation, organic production, traditional food production, handcrafts or cultural services are mentioned ( Naldi et al. 2015 ). They are often
the desired results. According to the latest Road Traffic Survey in Gdańsk in 2016, there was once again an increase in the share of individual motorization in daily commuting, with a slight increase in the share of bicycles and a drop in the number commuting by public transport. This situation arises from the fact that alternative ways of getting around the city are still not competitive in relation to commuting by one’s own car, especially when the time of travel and the ease of going from “door to door” are taken into account. This factor invariably affects the
Andreas Farwick, Heike Hanhörster, Isabel Ramos Lobato and Wiebke Striemer
the extent of boundary-crossing contacts. Opportunity structures for meeting up with other people in one’s immediate surroundings or in local organisations play an important role in this respect ( Petermann 2015 : 118 ff.; Beißwenger/Hanhörster 2019 ).
Based on quantitative and qualitative surveys in two neighbourhoods in the German city of Dortmund, the aim of this paper is to determine to what extent and in what form poor households in socially deprived neighbourhoods gain access to assistance through social contacts. The research question is thus: To what
the literature. Section four reviews the 52 empirical studies organized under the same headings as the theoretical discussion in section two. The article closes with a set of conclusions and recommendations based on the extensive review.
According to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Public Administration, amalgamation (or merger) is the process of “the fusion of one or more municipal entities into a new organization” ( Belley 2012 : 1). Similarly, Robert Bish (2001) defines amalgamation as a reduction in the number of multi
evident: here, during the stop in Paestum – reduced to a small number of houses The Scotsman often finds himself staying in miserable inns, sleeping on wooden planks and straw mattresses, with meals based on black bread, sausage or fish soup, accompanied by a bad wine. The misery of the inland areas of the province of Salerno is marked by the “Statistica” del Regno di Napoli [ Statistic of Naples Kingdom ] (1988, p. 543 and pp. 581–582). and afflicted by stagnant waters ( Ramage 2013 , pp. 48–49), with no trace of the old port, the ubication of which is still
Describing the process of the formation of winery landscapes from the point of view of their evolution as well as transformation is difficult for a number of reasons. First of all, a difficulty results from the question: Do such landscapes actually exist? Or should we rather talk about winery regions , as mentioned in the title? As will be shown in this paper, these two terms are often treated as synonyms; so an appropriate methodological perspective needs to be set. Other problems include the extended period under analysis (the last 8