). Energetic use of the tomato plant waste, Fuel Processing Technology, 89, 1193-1200. Gañán, J., Al-Kassir Abdulla, A., Cuerda Correa, E., Macias-Garcia, A. (2006). Energetic exploitation of vine shoot by gasification processes. A preliminary study. Fuel Processing Technology, 87, 891-897. Ghani, W., Alias, A., Savory, R., Cliffe, K. (2009). Co-combustion of agricultural residues with coal in a fluidised bed combustor, Waste Management, 29, 767-773. Golec T. (2004). Współspalanie biomasy w kotłach energetycznych. Energetyka, 7
Grzegorz Maj, Paweł Krzaczek, Andrzej Kuranc and Wiesław Piekarski
Magdalena Kachel-Jakubowska, Artur Kraszkiewicz and Marta Krajewska
Currently, many countries are establishing goals for substituting fossil fuels with biomass. This global trade in solid biofuels, which is to some extent already taking place, will have a major impact not only on other commodity markets like vegetable oils or animal fodder but also on the global land use change and on environmental impacts. It demonstrates the strong but complex link between biofuels production and the global food market, it unveils policy measures as the main drivers for production and use of biofuels and it analyzes various sustainability indicators and certification schemes for biofuels with respect to minimizing the adverse effects of biofuels. Biomass is seen as a very promising option for fulfilling the environmental goals defined by the European Commission as well as various national governments. We have measured selected physicochemical properties of several the most common oilseeds and the residue materials in the form of cakes, moisture, fat, heat of combustion, the calorific value and ash content. The results showed that the considered plants and waste derived therefrom can be a good energy source. Examples include sunflower oilcake, sesame, pumpkin and rapeseed cake, for which the calorific value amounted to respectively: 28.17; 27.77; 26.42 and 21.69 MJ·kg−1.
Piotr Sołowiej and Maciej Neugebauer
The objective of the paper was, inter alia, to determine the impact of coffee grounds on the heat of combustion of their combination with other biological materials. Research on the heat of combustion and calculations of the calorific value were carried out with the use of a KL-12 Mn calorimeter according to the technical specifications and standards PN-81/G–04513 i PN-ISO 1928:2002. Coffee grounds, tea grounds, pine wood and yellow wheat straw were used in the research. The heat of combustion of particular substrates was determined and then their mixtures with coffee grounds in the following proportion were prepared: 75% substrate – 25% coffee grounds, 50% substrate – 50% coffee grounds, 25% substrate – 75% coffee grounds. Calorific value of particular substrates was increasing with the amount of added coffee grounds. Their biggest flow was reported in the mixture of 50%/50% of coffee grounds and wheat straw and the smallest in case of coffee grounds and wood on account of a similar calorific value of both substrates.
Marta Marczak, Mateusz Karczewski, Dorota Makowska and Piotr Burmistrz
References Abbas, T., Costen, P., Kandamby, N. H., Lockwood, F. C., Ou, J. J. (1994). The influence of burner injection mode on pulverized coal and biomass co-fired flames. Combustion and flame , 99 (3), 617-625. Aerts, D. J., Bryden, K.., Hoerning, J. M., Ragland, K. W., Weiss, C. A. (1997). Co-firing switchgrass in a 50 MW pulverized coal boiler (No. CONF-970456). Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Berrueco, C., Lorente, E., an Niekerk, D., Millan, M. (2014). Evolution of tar in coal pyrolysis in conditions relevant to
Magdalena Kachel, Arkadiusz Matwijczuk, Artur Przywara, Artur Kraszkiewicz and Milan Koszel
Biodiesel has become more attractive material for its properties such as biodegradability, renewability and very low toxicity of its combustion products. A higher quality of this fuel is essential in its potential commercialization. Analytical methods used in biodiesel analysis are constantly refined. The most popular analytical techniques include chromatography and molecular spectroscopy. The ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is one of the most important methods of spectroscopy. This paper presents the results of studies on selected oils of natural origin using ATR-FTIR infrared absorption spectroscopy. Three types of oils from pumpkin seeds and winter rapeseed were analysed. The main fatty acids were also determined in all the samples.
Maciej Cyranka and Michał Jurczyk
., Klemes, J.J. (2012). Waste as alternative fuel – Minimising emissions and effluents by advanced design. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90 , 263-284. Granatstein, D. (2011). Technoeconomic Assessment of Fluidized Bed Combustors as Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators . Reno, 16th ASME International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, 13-16.05.2001. Obtained from: http://ieabioenergytask36.org/documents/studies/Summary_of_Six_Case_Studies.pdf . Grillo, L. (2013). Municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion plants. [w]: Klinghoffer N. Waste to
Wojciech Gołębiowski, Grzegorz Zając and Artur Wolak
współczesnych olejów silnikowych w eksploatacji. Autobusy – Technika, Eksploatacja, Systemy Transportowe, 12 , 337-340. Du, Y., Wu, T., Makis, V. (2017). Parameter estimation and remaining useful life prediction of lubricating oil with HMM. Wear , 376-377, 1227-1233. Gołębiowski, W., Wolak, A., Zając, G. (2018). Definition of oil change intervals based on the analysis of selected physicochemical properties of used engine oils. Combustion Engines, 57 , 44-50. Gomółka, L., Augustynowicz, A., Maciąg, A. (2011). Analiza stopnia degradacji oleju smarującego w
Aleksandr Korotkov, Andrey Palichyn, Petr Savinykh, Wacław Romaniuk, Kinga Borek and Jan Barwicki
, J.A., Palitsyn, A.V., Savinykh, P.A. (2018). Use of liquid cattle manure as an alternative fuel for piston internal combustion engine of a power plant. Problems of intensification of animal production including environment protection and alternative energy production as well as biogas . Warsaw, ISBN 978-83-65426-35-2, 88-93. Mahla, S.K., Singla, V., Sandhu, S.S., Dhir, A. (2018). Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 25 , 9722-9729. Morozov, N.M. (2011
Gabriel Czachor, Jerzy Bohdziewicz and Krzysztof Kawa
.D., Pevida, C., Pis, J.J. (2010). Ubiera F. Mechanical durability and combustion characteristics of pellets from biomass blends. Bioresource Technology , 101, 8859-8867. ÖNORM M 7135, Preβlinge aus naturbelassenem Holz und naturbelassender Rinde – Pellets und Briketts-Anforderungen und Prüβbestimmungen . PN-EN 15210-1: 2010. Biopaliwa stałe – Oznaczenie wytrzymałości mechanicznej brykietów i peletów – Cz 1: Pelety . Specyfikacja techniczna. (2004). Published standard. CEN/TS 14588 CEN/TC 335. Solid biofuels. Terminology, definitions and descriptions
Damian Marcinkowski, Mirosław Czechlowski and Tomasz Grzelak
liquid biofuels from renewable resources, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science . Pergamon, 37 (1), 52-68. Paul, A.; Bräuer, B., Nieuwenkamp, G., Ent, H., Bremser, W. (2016). A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel, Measurement Science and Technology , 27(6), 1-9. Sajjadi, B., Raman, A. A. A., Arandiyan, H. (2016). A comprehensive review on properties of edible and non-edible vegetable oil-based biodiesel: Composition, specifications and prediction models, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews