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Tomislav Ivanković, Jasna Hrenović, Grigorios Itskos, Nikolaos Koukouzas, Davor Kovačević and Jelena Milenković

, Kinrade SD. Characterization and evaluation of fly-ash from co-combustion of lignite and wood pellets for use as cement admixture. Fuel 2010;89:3042-50. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2010.05.027 7. Ramos T, Matos AM, Sousa-Coutinho J. Mortar with wood waste ash: Mechanical strength carbonation resistance and ASR expansion. Constr Build Mater 2013;49:343-51. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.08.026 8. Sharma M, Khan AA, Puri SK, Tuli DK. Wood ash as a potential heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. Biomass Bioenergy 2012

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Vladica Čudić, Dragoslava Stojiljković and Aleksandar Jovović

.envpol.2008.11.003 19. Obernberger I, Supancic K. Possibilities of ash utilisation from biomass combustion plants. In: Proceedings of the 17th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, From Research to Industry and Markets; 29 June - 3 July 2009; Hamburg, Germany. Florence: ETA-Florence Renewable Energies; 2009. p. 2373-84. 20. Van Eijk RJ, Obernberger I, Supancic K. Options for increased utilization of ash from biomass combustion and co-firing, 30102040-PGR/R&E 11-2142, IEA Bioenergy Task 32, Deliverable D4, 2012. [displayed 05 May 2014

Open access

Ranka Godec

Ugljik u lebdećim česticama u zraku

Ugljik (lat. carbo) u elementarnom stanju pojavljuje se kao dijamant, grafit, fuleren i crni amorfni ugljik. Crni amorfni ugljik nalazi se i u lebdećim česticama u atmosferi, a glavni oblici su: elementarni (EC), organski (OC) i karbonatni (CC) ugljik. Atmosferske čestice ugljika emitiraju se iz više od 70 različitih vrsta izvora onečišćenja zraka. EC je primarni onečišćivač koji nastaje nepotpunim izgaranjem fosilnih i biljnih goriva, a pojavljuje se još i kao čestice čađe te ga nalazimo i u sedimentima, tlima i ledu. Mnoga kvantitativna određivanja EC temelje se na njegovoj kemijskoj inertnosti, termičkoj stabilnosti i optičkim svojstvima. Organski spojevi kao što su policiklički aromatski ugljikovodici (PAU), poliklorirani bifenili (PCB), poliklorirani dibenzo-p-dioksini i furani, polibromirani difenileteri te druga organska onečišćenja nastaju procesima izgaranja i stvaranja sekundarnih organskih aerosola, a ubrajaju se u organski ugljik (OC).

Svrha je članka opisati različite oblike ugljika u lebdećim česticama u zraku, njihov negativni učinak na zdravlje ljudi, klimu i atmosferu te opisati metode za njihovo određivanje.

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Darija Kožul and Snježana Romanić

Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Soil and Sediment

This review presents methods for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), called dioxins, in soil and sediment. These compounds are produced as by-products of different combustion processes, and because of their persistency and toxicity they present a threat for animal and human health. Due to their high organic matter content, soil and sediment can accumulate dioxins and have become important secondary emission sources. Determining dioxins in these samples is complex because dioxins are present in trace levels and have to be separated from interferences whereas other classes of organic contaminants are present in higher concentrations. After sampling, follows extraction of compounds with a suitable solvent, extract clean-up from unwanted compounds, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the end of this review, we gave levels of PCDD/PCDFs found in soil and sediment samples.

Open access

Ivana Jakovljević and Silva Žužul

Policiklički aromatski ugljikovodici u zraku

Policiklički aromatski ugljikovodici (PAU) spojevi su koji se sastoje od dva ili više kondenziranih aromatskih prstenova. Nastaju prilikom nepotpunog izgaranja ili pirolize organskih tvari. Dokazano je da neki PAU imaju kancerogena, a neki mutagena svojstva, pa je stoga potrebno kontinuirano pratiti koncentracije PAU u zraku, vodi i tlu, te pokušati sanirati izvore PAU. PAU s dva ili tri aromatska prstena postojani su u plinovitoj fazi, dok se PAU s više aromatskih prstenova nalaze u zraku uglavnom vezani na čestice. Visoke koncentracije PAU prisutne su u atmosferi urbanih područja, a najviše su zimi kada su pojačane emisije iz kućnih ložišta. U ljetno doba koncentracije su niže jer je većina policikličkih aromatskih ugljikovodika nestabilna na visokim temperaturama, a osim toga dolazi do njihove oksidacije i fotooksidacije. Metode mjerenja PAU u zraku uključuju uzorkovanje prosisavanjem na filterski papir ili kruti adsorbens, ekstrakciju i kromatografsku analizu. U ovom radu prikazani su rezultati mjerenja benzo[a]pirena (BaP) kao glavnog predstavnika PAU na nekim lokacijama u svijetu. Razine BaP u svijetu uspoređene su s rezultatima mjerenja provedenim do sada u Hrvatskoj.

Open access

Vladica Čudić, Dragica Kisić, Dragoslava Stojiljković and Aleksandar Jovović

Ash From Thermal Power Plants as Secondary Raw Material

The basic characteristic of thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia is that they use low-grade brown coal (lignite) as a fuel. Depending on the location of coal mines, lignite may have different properties such as heating value, moisture, and mineral content, resulting in different residue upon combustion. Because of several million tonnes of ash and slag generated every year, their granularmetric particle size distribution, and transport and disposal methods, these plants have a negative impact on the environment. According to the waste classification system in the Republic of Serbia, ash and slag from thermal power plants are classified as hazardous waste, but with an option of usability. The proposed revision of waste legislation in Serbia brings a number of simple and modern solutions. A procedure is introduced which allows for end-of-waste criteria to be set, clarifying the point where waste ceases to be waste, and thereby introducing regulatory relief for recycled products or materials that represent low risk for the environment. The new proposal refocuses waste legislation on the environmental impacts of the generation and management of waste, taking into account the life cycle of resources, and develops new waste prevention programmes. Stakeholders, as well as the general public, should have the opportunity to participate in the drawing up of the programmes, and should have access to them.

Open access

Željka Zgorelec, Gordana Pehnec, Ferdo Bašić, Ivica Kisić, Milan Mesić, Silva Žužul, Aleksandra Jurišić, Ivana Šestak, Vladimira Vađić and Mirjana Čačković

11464:2004 Soil quality: Pretreatment of samples for physico-chemical analysis. Geneva: ISO; 2004. 24. International Organization for standardization (ISO). ISO 15178:2005 Soil quality: Determination of total sulfur by dry combustion. Geneva: ISO; 2005. 25. Central Bureau of Statistics RH (CBS RH). Statistical Yearbooks of Republic of Croatia, Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Zagreb: CBS RH; 2001-2011. 26. Uredba o graničnim vrijednostima onečišćujućih tvari u zraku [Regulation on Limit Values of Pollutants in

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Hulya Gunbatar, Bunyamin Sertogullarindan, Bulent Ozbay, Serhat Avcu, Gulay Bulut and Mustafa Kosem

References 1. Ozbay B, Uzun K, Arslan H, Zehir I. Functional and radiological impairment in women highly exposed to indoor biomass fuels. Respirology 2001;6:255-8. 2. Demirtaş N, Seyfikli Z, Topcu S. Sivas bolgesinden hastanemize başvuran kadın hastalarda biomass kullanımı ile KOAH arasındaki ilişki [The relationships between traditional biomass combustion and development of COPD in women from the Sivas area, in Turkish]. Solunum Hastalıkları Dergisi 1999;10:148-55. 3. Delgado J, Martinez LM, Sanchez TT

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Nada Miljević and Dušan Golobočanin

AW, Douthitt CB, Schluter HJ, Brand WA. Isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of D/H by high temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 1999;13:1226-30. Macko SA, Uhle ME, Engel MH, Andrusevich V. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis amino acid enantiomers by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 1997;69:926-9. Holt BD, Sturchio NC, Abrajano TA, Heraty LJ. Conversion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds to

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Jovanka Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jordan Minov, Snežana Risteska-Kuc, Sašo Stoleski and Dragan Mijakoski

, Armstrong R, Kogevinas M, Crane J. Occupational asthma in New Zealanders: a population based study. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:301-6. Brunekreef B. NO 2 : The gas that won't go away. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31:1170-2. Willers SM, Brunekreef B, Oldenwening M, Smith HA, Kerkhof M, Vries H. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products. Indoor Air 2006;16:65-73. Minov J, Karadzinska-Bislimovska J, Risteska-Kuc S, Stoleski S. Chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory