Slovakia“ Premysl Chemiczny, 2017, vol. 96, pp. 675-680, DOI: 10.15199/62.2017.3.36  Sarkan, B., Caban, J., Marczuk, A., Vrabel, J., Gnap, J., (2017) „Composition of exhaust gases of spark ignition engines under conditions of periodic inspection of vehicles in Slovakia“ Premysl Chemiczny, vol. 96, pp. 675-680, DOI: 10.15199/62.2017.3.36  Liu, H., Ma, G., Ma, N., Zheng, Z., Huang, H., & Yao, M. (2018). “Effects of charge concentration and reactivity stratification on combustion and emission characteristics of a PFI-DI dual injection engine under low
Vladimír Rievaj, Ján Gaňa and František Synák
Agnieszka Bok, Joanna Guziałowska-Tic and Wilhelm Jan Tic
The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides). The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.
Bohumil Frantál and Eva Nováková
Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.
Particulate matter results as an aftermath of numerous distinctive processes in the atmosphere and they become a part of everyday life. Their harmful effect and impact on the ambient environment is determined predominantly by the presence of various chemical substances and elements. The chemical composition of these particles (organic and elemental carbon, mineral dust, sea aerosols, secondary particles, especially sulphates and nitrates, heavy metals and further elements) is mainly impacted on by their origin, whereas the primary source of the particulate matter is determined and specified by the profile of chemical elements and substances. Particulate Matter (PM) may originate in various natural resources or anthropogenic sources. Among the natural sources sea salt is to be counted on, dust of the earth crust, pollen and volcanic ashes. Anthropogenic sources do include, predominantly, burning fossil fuels in the fossil-fuel power plants, local heating of households, burning liquefied fossil fuels in the combustion engines of vehicles, noncombustion related emissions as a result of vehicular traffic, resuspension of the road-traffic-related dust.
Jānis Kleperis, Biruta Sloka, Justs Dimants, Ilze Dimanta and Jānis Kleperis
The analysis of the results of long-term air quality monitoring in Riga is presented, which shows that in city centre throughout the measurement time (2004-2014) according to the guidelines defined by the European Union directives and Latvian laws the limits of small particles PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are exceeded. From the nature of appearance of pollution and from the research of morphology and composition of fine dust particles it was concluded that in the city centre where the monitoring was performed the main air pollutants are caused by internal combustion engine vehicles. The measures to reduce air pollution performed by two Action Programs (2004-2009; 2011-2015) of the City Council showed that there were only two possible ways to improve air quality in urban environment ‒ to decrease the number of traffic units and/or to decrease exhaust emissions from vehicles.
From the analysis of energy consumption and resources used for it the conclusion was drawn that Latvia is dependent on fossil fuel import, especially in traffic sector (99 %). A new trend has been observed in Latvia ‒ the type of cars is changing: the number of gasoline cars rapidly decreases and number of diesel cars is growing. Both fuels in exhaust gases of second-hand cars are giving high emissions of fine particles (soot) and nitrogen oxides as compared with new cars; 72 % of cars on the roads of Latvia are more than 13 years old. The switch to bio-diesel can improve Latvian statistics according to CO2 reduction target for 2020 but not the concentration of PM10 and NO2 on streets with dense traffic.
Therefore, to improve air quality in urban environment and simultaneously reduce the dependence of Latvia from fossil fuel import, a scenario is proposed for the changeover to zero-carbon technologies in transport and energy production. Hydrogen is analyzed from the point of view of availability of resources and commercialized technologies. The research of the public opinion was done because there is little awareness in society about hydrogen as energy carrier and simultaneously as fuel.
R. Saraswathy, Jijo James, P. Kasinatha Pandian, G. Sriram, J. K. Sundar, G. Swarna Kumar and A. Sathish Kumar
. 5, No. 4, 2016, pp. 65 – 70.  PRASANTH, M. - THOMAS, R. - SOCRATES, S. S. - KUMAR, S. S. - MANU, S. S.: Experimental Investigation on the Compressive Strength of Pressed Composite Earth Brick. Int. J. Res. Eng. Technol., Vol. 4, No. 8, 2015, pp. 95 – 98.  HEIDRICH, C. - FEUERBORN, H. J. - WEIR, A.: Coal Combustion Products : a Global Perspective. World of Coal Ash Conference, April 22 - 25, 2013.  Central Electricity Authority: Report on Fly Ash Generation at Coal / Lignite Based Thermal Power Stations and its Utilization in the Country
Jana Vlčková, Vojtěch Nosek, Josef Novotný and Antonín Lupíšek
: Economic Policy Institute. CARTER, F., TURNOCK, D. (2002). Environmental Problems in East-Central Europe (Vol. 16). IAP. DICKEN, P. (2007): Global shift: Mapping the changing contours of the world economy. SAGE Publications Ltd. EBELT, S., BRAUER, M., CYRYS, J., TUCH, T., KREYLING, W. G., WICHMANN, H. E., HEINRICH, J. (2001). Air quality in postunification Erfurt, East Germany: associating changes in pollutant concentrations with changes in emissions. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(4): 325. EIA (2012): CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion
Michał Ćwiąkała, Andrzej Greinert, Jakub Kostecki and Leszek Rafalski
. Pietrzykowski, M., Woś, B., Pająk, M., Wanic, T., Krzaklewski, W., Chodak, M. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment . Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25 (17), 2018, 17091-17099. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1892-7. 37. Pietrzykowski, M., Woś, B., Pająk M., Wanic, T., Krzaklewski W., Chodak, M. The impact of alders (Alnus spp.) on the physico-chemical properties oftechnosols on a lignite combustion waste disposal site . Ecological