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Open access

Chassica Kirchhoff

Abstract

The Thun-Hohenstein album, long-known as the Thun’sche Skizzenbuch, is a bound collection of 112 drawings that visualize armoured figures at rest and in combat, as well as empty armours arrayed in pieces. The collection gathers drawings that span the period from the 1470s to around 1590. While most of the images were executed in Augsburg during the 1540s, the album’s three oldest drawings date to the late-fifteenth century. Two of these works, which form a codicological interlude between the first and second quires, find parallels in the illustrations of contemporaneous martial treatises. This article traces the pictorial lineages of these atextual images through comparative analyses of fight books produced in the German-speaking lands, and considers how the representational strategies deployed in martial treatises inflected the ways that book painters and their audiences visualized the armoured body. This exploration situates a manuscript from which one of the drawings derives, Peter Falkner’s Art of Knightly Defense, now in Vienna, within the Augsburg book painters’ workshops that would later give rise to the Thun album. Finally, this study considers how the transmission and representation of martial knowledge in late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century Augsburg contributed to the later depictions of armoured bodies that populate the album.

Open access

Thomas Comyns and Aoife Hannon

session- RPE method. The participants were asked to indicate which categories of players they used in the calculation of their squad average data and the results are presented in Table 1 . Table 1 Results related to the S&C coaches’ responses to questions regarding their implementation of the session-RPE method Session-RPE Implementation Questions Do you... Yes n (%) No n (%) 1. Collect session-RPE for all aspects of training that the players are exposed to 14 (70%) 6 (30%) 2. Use session-RPE method to calculate Training Load

Open access

Maria José Carvalho, Marisa Sousa, Gustavo Paipe, Gustavo Bavaresco and José Luis Felipe

: Economic impact of a small event on a midsize community. Recreational Sports Journal, 33(2), 119-128. DOI: 10.1123/rsj.33.2.119 Wilson, R. (2006). The economic impact of local sport events: Significant, limited or otherwise? A case study of four swimming events. Managing Leisure, 11(1), 57. DOI: 10.1080/13606710500445718 Wilton, J. & Nickerson, N. (2006). Collecting and using visitor spending data. Journal of Travel Research, 45(1), 17-25. DOI: 10.1177/0047287506288875

Open access

Xiaole Sun, Yang Yang, Lin Wang, Xini Zhang and Weijie Fu

. An in-shoe plantar pressure measuring system (T&T Medilogic Medizintechnik GmbH, Schönefeld, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressure data at 120 Hz during SR and BR with rearfoot and forefoot strike patterns (RFS and FFS, respectively). An insole contained a maximum of 240 force sensors, the number of which depended on insole size and shape, with dimensions of 0.6 × 0.4 cm and a working dynamic range of 6–640 kPa ( Figure 1 ). Each insole was calibrated using the manufacturer’s calibration device prior to the study. A small portable datalogger was attached to

Open access

Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil and Gavin Devereux

system), providing a pool of data that can support coaching decisions and tactical strategies implemented in soccer ( Carling et al., 2008 ). The VTS is a technology that records two-dimensional position data (x and y) at high sampling rates (over 25 Hz). The VTS is used to quantify external load variables during official competitions ( Barris and Button, 2008 ; Buchheit et al., 2014 ; Carling et al., 2008 ). More specifically, the VTS is used to collect and analyse time-motion data such as total distance covered (TD), number of changes of direction, acceleration

Open access

Simona Ionescu, Denis Parisot and Adrian Irode

Le Sport en Milieu Carceral: la Perception des Detenus sur la Pratique Sportive

The aim of this paper is to analyze the importance of the sport's practice in prison for the prisoners. During the period of detention, the prisoners must participate in the reeducation programs which are organized for them with the purpose to recognize the gravity of their act, recognize their guilty, accepting the detention, to avoid the renewal and to help the reeducation. In all this education programs, the sport has a significant role in the accomplishment of the aims and can help in the transmission and communication process. As methods we used the questionnaire to collect the data and the graphics to present the results which point out the fact that the effect of sport practice has a positive effect on the physical and mental balance for the prisoners. In this purpose, the contribution of the professional personnel in the field is demanded.

Open access

Mateusz Rynkiewicz and Tadeusz Rynkiewicz

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis of Body Composition and Muscle Mass Distribution in Advanced Kayakers

Purpose. The study aims at assessment of body composition and muscle mass distribution in advanced kayakers. Kayak paddlers should be characterized by large body mass with a significant percentage of muscle mass, especially in the trunk region. Basic procedures. The sample consisted of 26 kayakers. The body composition and muscle mass distribution were determined based on bioelectrical impedance analysis. Main findings. The subjects had large muscle mass and average fat mass. The percentage of body fat mass in the kayakers was observed to increase with age, whereas the muscle mass percentage decreased, with the exception of the limbs. Conclusions. BIA of body composition and distribution of muscle mass should be a standard diagnostic method to collect data on proper adaptation of kayakers to their training programs.

Open access

One-bin Lim, Jeong-ah Kim, Si-jeong Song, Heon-seock Cynn and Chung-hwi Yi

Abstract

We investigated the effects of visual electromyography (EMG) biofeedback during side-lying shoulder external rotation exercise on the EMG amplitude for the posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, and infraspinatus/posterior deltoid EMG activity ratio. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were included. Subjects performed side-lying shoulder external rotation exercise with and without visual EMG biofeedback. Surface EMG was used to collect data from the posterior deltoid and infraspinatus muscles. The visual EMG biofeedback applied the pre-established threshold to prevent excessive posterior deltoid muscle contraction. A paired t-test was used to determine the significance of the measurements between without vs. with visual EMG biofeedback. Posterior deltoid activity significantly decreased while infraspinatus activity and the infraspinatus/posterior activity ratio significantly increased during side-lying shoulder external rotation exercise with visual EMG biofeedback. This suggests that using visual EMG biofeedback during shoulder external rotation exercise is a clinically effective training method for reducing posterior deltoid activity and increasing infraspinatus activity.

Open access

Latifa Abdalla

Abstract

The topic of leadership has attracted considerable interest amongst academics and practitioners. Much of the interest in the area of leadership is based on explicit and implicit claims that leadership styles are linked to organizational performance. This study aimed to examine the transformational leadership style among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 16 female sports leaders from the Kingdom of Bahrain participated in this study. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to determine the transformational leadership style of individuals. A demographic questionnaire was also administered to collect participants’ personal data. The results indicated that transformational leadership style is moderate among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain, thus we need to develop the leadership skills of women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Open access

Daniel J. Keefer

Abstract

Purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of body movement on the ability of a portable telemetric gas analysis device, the Cosmed K4b2, to produce a reliable measure of walking oxygen consumption (VO2). Methods. Thirteen adults were asked to report to a laboratory for three test sessions. During Session 1, participants were familiarized with the data collection procedures and completed a 15-min treadmill accommodation. In Sessions 2 and 3, each participant completed four 5-min treadmill walking trials at 1.8 m · sec-1 under different experimental conditions while VO2 was collected using the portable system. The four conditions were used to manipulate the portable metabolic system to mimic different types of movement. Results. Data analysis revealed no significant differences (p = 0.070) amongst VO2 values across all four experimental conditions during Sessions 2 and 3. Between-day coefficients of variation for the mean VO2 values of the four conditions ranged from 2.7% to 3.8%, with the highest level of variation occurring whilst the unit was strapped to the participant’s chest. Conclusions. Viewed collectively, the Cosmed K4b2 may produce reliable measures of VO2 in adult participants during treadmill walking who exhibit little vertical oscillation. However, future research is necessary to determine if the K4b2 is a valid instrument for collecting VO2 data if excessive body movement in the vertical direction can affect the data collection instrumentation.