Maria Margaret Lopes
A. Yusuf, D.S. Daramola, M.B. Bello and K.E. Obafemi
The purpose of the study was to find out the adequacy of upper basic Social Studies curriculum content for sustainable development in Nigeria as assessed by Social Studies teachers. 306 Social Studies teachers (109 male and 197 female teachers) from 341 upper basic schools in Kwara State participated in the study. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collect data that were analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square. The results showed that the content of upper basic Social Studies was not adequate, as assessed by teachers. It was also revealed that teachers’ assessment was significantly influenced by teaching experience, qualification and school type. However, the research showed that gender did not significantly influence Social Studies teachers’ assessment. Based on the findings, it was suggested that upper basic Social Studies curriculum should be reviewed and taught so as to ensure sustainable development in Nigeria.
Adekunle Thomas Olutola, Olufunke Omotoke Olatoye and Rafiu Ademola Olatoye
This study investigated assessment of e-learning resources utilization by students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. A researchers’ designed questionnaire titled “Utilization of E-learning Resources Questionnaire” (UERQ) with a Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.85 was used to collect data. frequency, percentage, mean, t-test and ANOVA statistics were used to analyse the data collected. Findings revealed that there is no significant difference in the e-learning utilization by students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State based on gender and agebut there is significant difference based on class levels and institutions. It was recommended that Nigerian tertiary institutions general studies curriculum should be re-designed to include e-learning utilization training to help the students understand how they can utilize e-learning resources.
Some Methodological Issues
Nikolett Várhegyi and Péter Furkó
The present paper approaches the theme of “understanding strangers” through discussing some of the methodological issues in interlanguage pragmatics (ILP), with special reference to Hungarian-English Interlanguage (IL) requests. Written discourse completion tasks (WDCT) were used to collect data from 20 English major university students. The CCSARP Project’s 9-scale request strategies table proposed by Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper (1989) was incorporated into the research, the proposed categories were extended by labels relating to mixed strategies and responses where no answers were provided. The structure of the paper is as follows: after a brief overview of the literature in the field of ILP with a special focus on WDCT, the validity of the methodology is highlighted through the discussion of issues relating to labelling/coding categories as well as interannotator (dis)agreements. By analysing and comparing utterances on the basis of our annotation output and validating the results with the aid of ReCal, we have confirmed that WDCT is a reliable and valid tool for testing ILP competence in speech acts performance.
Juraj Štefanovič and Frank Schindler
Aim of the article is to present our research dealing with virtual reality modeling and education activities. It involves a chain of development steps: taking pictures of objects, collecting information, creation of 3D models and panoramas, setting up the interactive virtual reality environment along with educational support and testing the user experience with students. Methodology/methods of work: the creation of 3D models and panoramas is done by taking pictures of real objects and using them as textures. The education materials are created as interactive presentations and the usability testing of these presentations should be planned. Scientific goal is to measure the quality of interaction by this education support in order to derive rules testing effectiveness of support, interactive applications and presentations. Findings: 3D models and other educational support materials may be created voluntarily by teachers. The open source library for many different models should be created by whole community provided suitable interfaces of modeling tools will be arranged. Conclusions: Complex educational and interactive materials including virtual reality and panoramas are satisfactory when combined with easy 3D models that are made from taken pictures, which could be made by teachers themselves and/or open communities by existing cameras.
Ervin Toçi, Dorina Çanaku, Arjan Bregu, Eduard Kakarriqi, Enver Roshi and Genc Burazeri
AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.
The main concern of this article is to collect and discuss cases that are advanced for and against small agricultural farms at the international level in the EU and the national level in Poland and to make an assessment of these cases in the context of sustainable rural development. Cases concerning small farms and put forward by different actors reflect their visions of agriculture and rural development. Taking a closer look at those cases is interesting in the context of sustainability considerations, as there is a widespread programmatic demand for sustainable rural development, but at the same time visions for rural development may differ widely, and the question what exactly is meant to be sustainable often remains unanswered. Before the various arguments raised for and against small farms are discussed, some evidence from two Polish rural regions is presented. The empirical research was conducted in April and May 2012 in Eastern and Southern Poland in the context of my PhD-thesis. After presenting statements made by Polish smallholders, an assessment of the initially collected cases is made in the context of sustainable rural development. A.comparison of cases made for and against small farms and findings from empirical research shows that small farms do in fact have the potential to contribute to sustainable rural development.
Social work is a sharing and caring profession based on scientific methods. This problem solving profession makes people self-reliant and self-dependent when he/she is in any sorts of crises. Thus, it differs from relief work, social services or social welfare delivered during emergence crises. This paper examined the application of professional social work as relief work, which did not bring any change among the beneficiaries; rather it set their mind as opportunist. For this purpose, the programme sponsored by the government of India and implemented by nongovernmental organizations for rehabilitation of the street children (i.e., pavements and slums dwellers, children of sex workers, and so forth) of Metro cities like Kolkata had priority. This evaluative study assessed the progress and changes among 500 street children who were the beneficiaries for 10 years of the programme, selected according to their parental residents/occupation through stratified sampling. Interviews, case studies and group interaction were used to collect data on various aspects, i.e. personal background, education, and occupation of these children. It revealed that after almost 10 years of services, the problem of children was static. Firstly, service delivery system was as relief work. The methods of social work were not implied while the professionals were in implementation. On the other hand, the scope of monitoring and evaluation of the programme by government was suspended due to several reasons. Definitely, the politicalization in human development would be restricted. The problems of suffering would be root out and it should not be a continued process.
Rikke Hellum, Lene Bjerregaard and Anette Søgaard Nielsen
AIM – Many Danes drink so much that it is detrimental to their health. As they are at risk of suffering diseases which can lead to hospitalisation on somatic wards, hospitals are ideal arenas for identifying individuals whose alcohol consumption is excessive. However, literature points out that this identification rarely takes place in hospitals, and literature further suggests that the staff experience barriers to talking about alcohol use with their patients. The primary aim of this study is to identify potential factors that influence whether or not nurses talk to patients about their alcohol consumption on somatic wards. Secondarily, we wish to examine whether a screening project may affect the nurses’ readiness to talk about alcohol use with their patients.
METHODS – A Glaserian Grounded Theory Method was used to collect and analyse data in this qualitative study. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were conducted with seven nurses from somatic departments at two Danish hospitals. All seven nurses were already taking part in an alcohol screening project.
RESULTS – In the analysis of the interview material, four categories emerged: The Nurse, The Patient, The Ward and The Relay Study.
CONCLUSION – We identified a series of barriers and promoting factors for nurses to talk about alcohol use with patients in a hospital setting. The barriers and promoting factors emerged within four categories: The Nurse, The Patient, The Ward, and The Relay Study. The most important barrier to talking to patients about alcohol seemed to be factors within the nurses themselves, in particular personal experiences, lack of knowledge and lack of confidence. We found, however, that by participating in a screening project the nurses seemed to overcome some of these barriers.