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F. Seehofer and D. Hanssen

Abstract

Construction and working principle of an automatic capillary press, a smoking machine for preparing instant smoke condensate of 15 cigarettes per smoking procedure, are presented. The smoking capacity is 500 cigarettes per day. Condensate production by means of total puffs smoking, in echelons as well as by means of individual puffs is possible. The reproducibility of smoke condensate and smoke nicotine yields is 2.5% R.S.D. Compared with electrostatic precipitation the smoke yield is 90%. The yields of condensate, nicotine, phenols, water, acids, and benzopyrene are reported. Changes of the results of total puffs yields and individual puff yields as a function of initial tobacco moisture as well as different precipitation procedures are indicated.

Open access

R Weitkunat, CRE Coggins, Z Sponsiello-Wang, G Kallischnigg and R Dempsey

Question-naires for Epidemiological Studies; Occup. Environ. Med. 62 (2005) 272–280. 43. Reimer, M. and B. Matthes: Collecting Event Histories with Truetales: Techniques to Improve Autobiographi-cal Recall Problems in Standardized Interviews; Qual. Quant. 41 (2007) 711–735. 44. Dijkstra, W., J.H. Smit, and Y.P. Ongena: An Evaluation Study of the Event History Calendar; in : Calendar and Time Diary: Methods in Life Course Research, edited by R.F. Belli, F.P. Stafford, and D.F. Alwin, Sage, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2009, pp

Open access

M. Fernández-Martínez

definition of fractal dimension and provide useful expressions to deal with its effective calculation. We collect some connections of each definition of fractal dimension with the classical definitions of fractal dimension, namely, both the box and the Hausdorff dimensions. In addition, we also provide some links to other fractal dimensions defined from a fractal dimension approach. Interestingly, we shall generalize the box dimension throughout the so-called fractal dimensions I, II, and III, whereas we shall generalize the Hausdorff dimension by means of fractal

Open access

H. Barkemeyer and F. Seehofer

Abstract

The apparatus for collecting the particle phase of tobacco smoke in liquids described by us in one of the preceding editions has been modified and can now be used for analytical purposes.

Open access

H.P. Harke and C.J. Drews

Abstract

The present paper describes a simple device designed for the analytical smoking of single cigarettes and capable of collecting the gaseous constituents of tobacco smoke. The trap has been used to determine the carbon monoxide content of the smoke of cigarettes made from reconstituted tobacco by gas chromatography

Open access

N.M. Chopra and J.J. Domanski

Abstract

This paper describes the methods used in smoking p,p'-DDT-treated tobacco, collecting the smoke condensate, chromatographing the condensate on activated Florisil and deactivated alumina columns, and finally identifying the non-volatile p,p'-DDT pyrolysis products in the tobacco smoke condensate. The pyrolysis products identified were: p,p'-DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'-TDE, p,p'-DDM, trans-p,p'-dichlorostilbene, bis-(p-chlorophenyI)methane, and p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone.

Open access

T.H. Houseman

Abstract

The construction and evaluation of equipment for smoking a cigarette and collecting all the products of combustion is described. The apparatus was designed to permit the quantitative puff-by-puff collection of mainstream TPM. It has been used to study the transference of nicotine-2'-14C-di(p-toluoyl tartrate) to tobacco smoke. The smoke transfer characteristics of endogenous and exogenous alkaloids were similar. Alkaloids (as nicotine) were found only in the particulate phase of smoke 14C-alkaloid accounting for approximately 95 % of the total 14C-activity recovered from mainstream and sidestream TPM.

Open access

A. F. Haeberer and O. T. Chortyk

Abstract

A procedure has been developed to collect, transfer, and analyse volatile organic pyrolysis products of tobacco leaf compounds. The volatiles were collected in a series of three traps on adsorbents that also served as substrates for transfer and for introduction of the volatiles into a gas chromatograph. Analytical procedures are described for three gas chromatographic columns packed, respectively, with the three different adsorbents used in the traps. With this system, volatile pyrolyzates were collected and analysed without the use of cryogenic traps, vacuum manifolds, or gas-sampling valves. The applicability of the procedures is demonstrated for the pyrolysis volatiles of stearic acid, a tobacco constituent

Open access

H. Elmenhorst

Abstract

The described ''cold'' trap has been developed for preparatory purposes and is designed for collecting and precipitating the smoke of 6000 cigarettes. The trap operates without filter material or added solvents. The precipitated smoke condensate itself acts as precipitating filter. By the new trap the precipitation of the smoke is thus performed much more tenderly than by all other hitherto known precipitation apparatusses. The quality of the "cold'' condensate does not differ from that of electrostatically produced condensate or from that of condensate obtained by a vibration frit. The reproducibility of the results obtained by means of the described preparatory ''cold'' trap is satisfactory. The mode of action of the trap is discussed.

Open access

F Omori, N Higashi, M Chida, Y Sone and S Suhara

Abstract

We developed an internal standard-based method to analyze the vapor phase components of mainstream smoke. This method collects vapor phase components from sample cigarettes, which are smoked by a linear automatic smoking machine in a sampling bag. An internal standard gas was introduced to the bag. A 6-port valve with a 2-ml sampling loop was placed between the vapor phase smoke outlet of the smoking machine and the bag to regulate the volume of the internal standard. The mixed gas sample was then introduced, by an automatic injection device developed in-house, to a gas chromatograph (GC) for ten successive analyses. The sample in the bag was analyzed every two hours to assess the time serial changes of vapor phase smoke components as well as of the internal standard. After 18 hours, in the tenth analysis, the amounts of 37 vapor phase components decreased by less than 5 % from those in the first analysis. The repeatability of the sample analysis was assessed and 45 vapor phase components had coefficients of variation of less than 5 %. The overall reproducibility of this method including tobacco samples and instruments was also assessed using five other sampling bags and achieved coefficients of variation of less than 6 % for 42 vapor phase components. The advantages of this method include capability to handle 10 tobacco samples in a serial manner, capability to collect both the vapor phase and semivolatile components, and precise, easy and continuous component analyses. We also present the results of multivariate analyses for the vapor phase and semivolatile components from 59 sample cigarettes.