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International Agrophysics

The Journal of Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences

Open access

Denis Loustau, Nuria Altimir, Mireille Barbaste, Bert Gielen, Sara Marańón Jiménez, Katja Klumpp, Sune Linder, Giorgio Matteucci, Lutz Merbold, Marteen Op de Beek, Patrice Soulé, Anne Thimonier, Caroline Vincke and Peter Waldner

Abstract

The nutritional status of plant canopies in terms of nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) exerts a strong influence on the carbon cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, in order to account for the spatial and temporal variations in nutritional status of the plant species composing the canopy, we detail the methodology applied to achieve consistent time-series of leaf mass to area ratio and nutrient content of the foliage within the footprint of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem stations. The guidelines and defi-nitions apply to most terrestrial ecosystems.

Open access

F. Seehofer and D. Hanssen

Abstract

Construction and working principle of an automatic capillary press, a smoking machine for preparing instant smoke condensate of 15 cigarettes per smoking procedure, are presented. The smoking capacity is 500 cigarettes per day. Condensate production by means of total puffs smoking, in echelons as well as by means of individual puffs is possible. The reproducibility of smoke condensate and smoke nicotine yields is 2.5% R.S.D. Compared with electrostatic precipitation the smoke yield is 90%. The yields of condensate, nicotine, phenols, water, acids, and benzopyrene are reported. Changes of the results of total puffs yields and individual puff yields as a function of initial tobacco moisture as well as different precipitation procedures are indicated.

Open access

Mojtaba Maghrebi, Claude Sammut and Travis S. Waller

methodology for collecting, classifying, and analyzing Canadian construction court cases”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 34, 177-188. [10] Chen, J. H. and Hsu, S. C. (2007), “Hybrid ANN-CBR model for disputed change orders in construction projects”, Automation in Construction 17, 56-64. [11] Cheng, M. Y., Tsai, H. C. and Liu, C. L. (2009) “Artificial intelligence approaches to achieve strategic control over project cash flows”, Automation in Construction 18, 386-393. [12] Cheng, T. M. and Yan, R. Z. (2009

Open access

R Weitkunat, CRE Coggins, Z Sponsiello-Wang, G Kallischnigg and R Dempsey

Question-naires for Epidemiological Studies; Occup. Environ. Med. 62 (2005) 272–280. 43. Reimer, M. and B. Matthes: Collecting Event Histories with Truetales: Techniques to Improve Autobiographi-cal Recall Problems in Standardized Interviews; Qual. Quant. 41 (2007) 711–735. 44. Dijkstra, W., J.H. Smit, and Y.P. Ongena: An Evaluation Study of the Event History Calendar; in : Calendar and Time Diary: Methods in Life Course Research, edited by R.F. Belli, F.P. Stafford, and D.F. Alwin, Sage, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2009, pp

Open access

M. Fernández-Martínez

definition of fractal dimension and provide useful expressions to deal with its effective calculation. We collect some connections of each definition of fractal dimension with the classical definitions of fractal dimension, namely, both the box and the Hausdorff dimensions. In addition, we also provide some links to other fractal dimensions defined from a fractal dimension approach. Interestingly, we shall generalize the box dimension throughout the so-called fractal dimensions I, II, and III, whereas we shall generalize the Hausdorff dimension by means of fractal

Open access

H. Barkemeyer and F. Seehofer

Abstract

The apparatus for collecting the particle phase of tobacco smoke in liquids described by us in one of the preceding editions has been modified and can now be used for analytical purposes.

Open access

H.P. Harke and C.J. Drews

Abstract

The present paper describes a simple device designed for the analytical smoking of single cigarettes and capable of collecting the gaseous constituents of tobacco smoke. The trap has been used to determine the carbon monoxide content of the smoke of cigarettes made from reconstituted tobacco by gas chromatography

Open access

N.M. Chopra and J.J. Domanski

Abstract

This paper describes the methods used in smoking p,p'-DDT-treated tobacco, collecting the smoke condensate, chromatographing the condensate on activated Florisil and deactivated alumina columns, and finally identifying the non-volatile p,p'-DDT pyrolysis products in the tobacco smoke condensate. The pyrolysis products identified were: p,p'-DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'-TDE, p,p'-DDM, trans-p,p'-dichlorostilbene, bis-(p-chlorophenyI)methane, and p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone.

Open access

A. F. Haeberer and O. T. Chortyk

Abstract

A procedure has been developed to collect, transfer, and analyse volatile organic pyrolysis products of tobacco leaf compounds. The volatiles were collected in a series of three traps on adsorbents that also served as substrates for transfer and for introduction of the volatiles into a gas chromatograph. Analytical procedures are described for three gas chromatographic columns packed, respectively, with the three different adsorbents used in the traps. With this system, volatile pyrolyzates were collected and analysed without the use of cryogenic traps, vacuum manifolds, or gas-sampling valves. The applicability of the procedures is demonstrated for the pyrolysis volatiles of stearic acid, a tobacco constituent