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I. Malovecká, J. Vidrová, D. Mináriková and V. Foltán

Abstract

Medical devices (MD), together with pharmacotherapy are supportive treatment of many acute and chronic diseases. MD as a part of medical technologies lead to more effective treatment, faster patient recovery and a reduced risk of complications. Many MD are reimbursed from public health insurance funds entirely; for others, particularly advanced functional types of MD, there must be patient participation on price or they can buy them according own decision (direct sale). The target of this study is to analyze the data from paid databases of National Center for Health Information (NCHI) that collects the outputs of provided healthcare. The most recent data were from 1.1.2013 to 30.9.2013. According to NCHI, apart from community pharmacies, there are 226 registered establishments that sold MD until 30.9.2013. Their specialization included dispensing MD (n=163), dispensing orthopaedic devices (n=48) and dispensing audioprosthetic devices (n=15). In the observed period, average monthly spending on MD were 10.1 million packages and 14 million €. Average monthly spending on reimbursed MD were 8.8 million packages and 12.9 million €. The groups with the largest shares were MD for incontinence and urinary retention, 7.7 million packages (86.9%) and 3.9 million € (30.7%); plasters and bandaging materials, 0.5 million packages (6.0%) and 1.3 million € (10.1%); MD for ostomies, 0.4 million packages (4.5%) and 1 million € (8.0%); and the MD for diabetics group, 0.1 million packages (1.4%) and 1.6 million € (12.8%). Direct sales of MD per month on average reached 1.3 million packages and 1.1 million €. The groups with largest shares were MD for incontinence and urinary retention, 629,660 packages (50.3%) and 291,919 € (26.2%); plasters and bandaging materials, 388,111 packages (31.0%) and 227,119 € (20.4%); and MD for diabetics, 56,014 packages (4.5%) and 81,721 € (7.3%).

Open access

I. Tumová, J. Sokolík, I. Lacko and E. Račanská

(cresoxyacetato)zinc(II) complexes. Pharmazie 55, 2000, p. 150-151. ETTEL, V. - WEICHT, J. - SPÁČIL, J.: Several derivatives of phenoxyacetic acids. Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 15, 1950, p. 1050-1068. GAO, S. - LIU, J. W. - HUO, L. H. - ZHAO, H. - ZHAO J. G.: catena -Poly[[[aqua-(1,10-phenanthroline-κ 2 N, N ')copper(II)]-μ-benzene-1,3-dioxyacetato-κ 2 O:O ']dihydrate]. Acta Cryst E60, 2004, p. m1769-m1771. LENFELD, J. - MAREK, J.: A nethod elaborated for measurement of small volumes and its application for the

Open access

Farhat Batool, Ambreen Hasnat, Muhammad Haleem and Darakhshan Haleem

Dose-related effects of clozapine and risperidone on the pattern of brain regional serotonin and dopamine metabolism and on tests related to extrapyramidal functions in rats

The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical profiles of clozapine and risperidone in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Animals injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with clozapine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg kg-1) or risperidone (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1) were sacrificed 1 h later to collect brain samples. Hypolocomotive effects (home cage activity and catalepsy) were successively monitored in each animal after the drug or saline administration. Both drugs significantly (p < 0.01) decreased locomotor activity at high doses and in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum (100%) cataleptic potential was achieved at a high dose (5.0 mg kg-1) of risperidone. Neurochemical estimations were carried out by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Both drugs, at all doses, significantly (p < 0.01) increased the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of dopamine (DA), in the striatum. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels increased in the striatum and decreased in the rest of the brain, particularly in clozapine-injected rats. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the predominant metabolite of serotonin, significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in the striatum. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was significantly (p < 0.01) increased by risperidone and decreased by clozapine in the rest of the brain. Striatal tryptophan (TRP) was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased by risperidone and increased in the rest of the brain. The striatal HVA/DA ratio increased and the 5-HT turnover rate remained unchanged in the rest of the brain. Results suggest that the affinity of the two drugs towards D2/5-HT1A receptors interaction is involved in lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. Role of 5-HT1A receptors in the treatment of schizophrenia is discussed.

Open access

Nehad Abd El-Latif, Mohamed Abdulla and Abd Amr

: 10.1016/j.bmc.2006.04.045. A. E. Amr, A. M. Mohamed and A. A. Ibrahim, Synthesis of some new chiral tricyclic and macrocyclic pyridine derivatives as antimicrobial agents, Z. Naturforsch. 58b (2003) 861-868; DOI: 932-0776/03/0900-0861. A. E. Amr, O. I. Abdel-Salam, A. Attia and I. Stibor, Synthesis of new potential bis-intercallators based on chiral pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamides, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 64 (1999) 288-298 DOI: 10.1135/cccc19990288. A. Attia, O. I. Abdel-Salam, A. E

Open access

Mostafa M. Ghorab, Zienab H. Ismail, Awwad A. Radwan and Mohamad Abdalla

-styrylquinazoline-4(3H)-ones, Med. Chem. Res . 17 (2008) 205-211; DOI: 10.1007/s00044-007-9054-3. 10. P. Kumar, C. Nath, K. P. Bhargava and K. Shanker, Synthesis and antiparkinsonian activity of styryl quinazolones, Pharmazie 37 (1982) 802-804. 11. F. Roubinek, J. Vavrina and Z. Budesinsky, 3-Aminoalkyl- and 3-benzyl-4(3H)-quinazolinones, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun . 47 (1982) 630-635; DOI: 10.1135/cccc19820630. 12. G. Y. Zhixiong, R. K. Bakshi,M. Chen, S. P. Rohrer, S. D. Feighner, S. S. Pong, A. D. Howard, A. Blake, E

Open access

Ashok K. Shakya, Mehnaz Kamal, Vishal M. Balaramnavar, Sanna K. Bardaweel, Rajashri R. Naik, Anil K. Saxena and H. H. Siddiqui

-benzothiophenes and indoles, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 65 (2000) 280-296. 17. C. Aswathanarayanappa, E. Bheemappa, Y. D. Bodke, V. K. Bhovi, R. Ningedowda, M. C. Shivakumar, S. K. Peethambar and S. Telkar, 5-Phenyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl derivatives, synthesis, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity, Med. Chem. Res. 22 (2013) 78-87; DOI: 10.1007/s00044-12-0017-y. 18. T. Kosmalski, J. Kutkowska, A. K. Gzella and A. Nowakiewicz, New heterocyclic oxime ethers of 1-(benzofuran-2-yl)ethan-1-one and their antimicrobial activity, Acta Pol. Pharm. 72

Open access

Ilona Wojcik-Checinska, Agnieszka Mojsym, Agnieszka Loj-Maczulska and Renata Chalas

Abstract

Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

Open access

Joana I. Simeonova, Nevena V. Tzvetanova and Yanka I. Tzvetanova

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify family factors determining risk sexual behavior among students aged 12- 18 in Veliko Turnovo region. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. Three hundred and ten students were included in a representative sample of students attending seven schools in Veliko Turnovo region. The respondents filled in a self-administered questionnaire, designed to collect data on family interactions, acts of sexual coercion, parental social status and their influence on the sexual behavior of the students. Data were processed using SPSS.v.19. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were applied. About one-fifth of the students were nurtured in incomplete families. History of a sexually transmitted diseases correlated with type of family (p<0.05). Poorer family interactions (rare family dinners and no conversations about sex) determined acts of risk sexual behavior - accidental contraceptive use during sex and postponing an obstetric examination (p<0.05). Students reporting sexual coercion had also had frequent casual sexual intercourse (p<0.05). Identifying family factors is of essential importance in planning effective sexual health education at school.

Open access

Hou-Lian Wang, An-Lin Guo, Jun-Yun Ge, Mai-Lan Liu and Xiao-Rong Chang

Abstract

Objective: To systematically review the effectiveness of Balance Acupuncture for the Pain in Neck, Shoulder, Low-back and Legs (PNSLL).

Methods: Web-based search on databases such as PubMed(2008.1.~2014.11)、Web of Science(2008.1.~ 2014.11)、Wan Fang Data(2008.1.~2014.11)、CNKI(2008.1.~2014.11)to collect literature of randomized controlled trials (RCT) on Balance Acupuncture for PNSLL. Literature selection, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the included studies were conducted by two reviewers independently. The meta-analysis was performed by using Rev Man 5.2 software.

Results: A total of 6 studies involving 816 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that Balance Acupuncture treatment of the PNSLL is superior to traditional Acupuncture, with significant differences (OR=0.12, 95%CI=[0.08,0.15], Z=5.83, P<0.00001).

Conclusion: Balance Acupuncture is an effective and safe way for treating PNSLL, though it may need further demonstration by more large-scale and well-designed RCT due to the limited quantity and quality of the included studies.

Open access

Allison Greig

Abstract

People with Inherited Bleeding Disorders (IBD) are often prescribed a course of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) mouthwash for five to seven days following dental procedures to reduce the risk of bleeding. Informal discussions with patients suggested that many do not complete the prescribed course of treatment. A literature review indicated that TXA was prescribed inappropriately for procedures with a low bleeding risk, and that there are inconsistencies in the recommended dose, mode of administration and duration of TXA for this patient group. A new protocol was implemented in the haemophilia centre at St George’s University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, to rationalise the prescribing of TXA in dental procedures. A study was conducted to explore patients’ experience of this new guideline in the form of a service evaluation. Structured telephone interviews were completed following 39 dental procedures to collect data on concerns about bleeding; whether TXA was taken as prescribed and reasons for non-adherence; and any unplanned post-operative treatment. The financial impact of the new guideline was also explored. Patients were supportive of the new regimen, although almost half (46%) did not complete the prescribed course of TXA. The majority (37/39) were prescribed tablets rather than mouthwash. No patients required additional unplanned haemostasis support to control haemorrhage. Cost savings were made by replacing a five- to seven-day course of TXA mouthwash with a three-day course of TXA tablets. Although the data collected from patient interviews supports the new guideline, patients appear to be making decisions about taking TXA based on their own experience rather than following the prescribed regimen. Prescribers should support patients to make informed decisions about their medicines and incorporate patient experience into individualised regimens. Given the lack of bleeding complications experienced in this cohort of patients, it is possible that TXA is being overprescribed. Further work exploring how patients with IBDs make decisions about taking medicines is needed.