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Eun-Kee Park, Sally K. Mak and Bruce D. Hammock

References Burg MB. (2002). Response of renal inner medullary epithelial cells to osmotic stress. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 133 : 661-666. Cai Q, Dmitrieva NI, Michea LF, Rocha G, Ferguson D and Burg MB. (2003). Toxicity of acetaminophen, salicylic acid, and caff eine for fi rst-passage rat renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306 : 35-42. Ferraro PM, Costanzi S, Naticchia A, Sturniolo A and Gambaro G. (2010). Low level exposure to cadmium increases the risk of

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Martina Svobodová, Helena Dračínská, Markéta Martínková, Jiří Hudeček, Petr Hodek, Eva Frei and Marie Stiborová

gasoline engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. Monograph on the Evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to humans. Diesel Exhaust and Some Nitroarenes. Vol. 46, IARC, Lyon. Mikšanová M, Novák P, Frei E and Stiborová M (2004a) Metabolism of carcinogenic 2-nitroanisole by rat, rabbit, porcine and human hepatic cytosol. Collect Czech Chem Commun   69 : 589-602. Mikšanová M, Šulc M, Rýdlová H, Schmeiser HH, Frei E and Stiborová M (2004b) Enzymes involved in the metabolism of the carcinogen 2-nitroanisole: evidence for its

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Dindayal Patidar, Mithun S. Rajput, Nilesh P. Nirmal and Wenny Savitri

Abstract

Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, often identified only post-marketingly. Improvement in current ADR reporting, including utility of underused or innovative methods, is crucial to improve patient safety and public health. Hospital-based monitoring is one of the methods used to collect data about drug prescriptions and adverse events. The aims of this study were to identify the most frequent ADRs recognized by the attending physicians, study their nature, and to target these ADRs in order to take future preventive measures. A prospective study was conducted over a 7-month period in an internal medicine department using stimulated spontaneous reporting for identifying ADRs. Out of the 254 admissions, 32 ADRs in 37 patients (14.56%) were validated from the total of 36 suspected ADRs in 41 patients. Female predominance was noted over males in case of ADRs. Fifty percent of total ADRs occurred due to multiple drug therapy. Dermatological ADRs were found to be the most frequent (68.75%), followed by respiratory, central nervous system and gastrointestinal ADRs. The drugs most frequently involved were antibiotics, antitubercular agents, antigout agents, and NSAIDs. The most commonly reported reactions were itching and rashes. Out of the 32 reported ADRs, 50% of the reactions were probable, 46.87% of the reactions were possible and 3.12% of the reactions were definite. The severity assessment done by using the Hartwig and Seigel scale indicated that the majority of ADRs were ‘Mild’ followed by ‘Moderate’ and ‘Severe’ reactions, respectively. Out of all, 75% of ADRs were recovered. The most potent management of ADRs was found to be drug withdrawal. Our study indicated that hospital based monitoring was a good method to detect links between drug exposure and adverse drug reactions. Adequate training regarding pharmacology and optimization of drug therapy might be helpful to reduce ADR morbidity and mortality.

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Juraj Harmatha, Zdeněk Zídek, Eva Kmoníčkova and Jan Šmidrkal

]. Harmatha J. (2005). Structural variability and biological value of lignans and related phenylpropanoids of plant oriogin. Chem Listy   99 : 622-632 [in Czech]. Harmatha J, Buděšínský M, Trka A. (1982). The structure of yatein. Determination of the positions and configurations of benzyl groups in lignans of the 2,3-dibenzoyl type. Collect Czech Chem Commun   47 : 644-663. Harmatha J, Buděšínský M, Vokáč K. (2002). Photochemical transformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone: production of monomeric and dimeric ecdysteroid

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Marie Stiborová, Václav Martínek, Marcela Semanská, Petr Hodek, Martin Dračínský, Josef Cvačka, Heinz Schmeiser and Eva Frei

human hepatic microsomes. Collect Czech Chem Commun   67 : 1883-1898. Mazzetti M, Fascioli R, Mazzoncini I, Spinelli G, Morelli I, Bertoli A. (2004). Determination of 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (Sudan I) in chilli powder and in chilli-containing food products by GPC clean-up and HPLC with LC/MS confirmation. Food Addit Contam   21 : 935-941. Moller P, Wallin H. (2000). Genotoxic hazards of azo pigments and other colorants related to 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene. Mutat Res   462 : 13

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Jitka Poljaková, Tomáš Eckschlager, Jana Hřebačková, Jan Hraběta and Marie Stiborová

derivatives in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Collect Czech Chem Commun   69 : 603-615. Brodeur GM (2003) Neuroblastoma: biological insights into a clinical enigma. Nat Rev Cancer   3 : 203-216. Frei E, Bieler CA, Arlt VM, Wiessler M, Stiborová M (2002) Covalent binding of the anticancer drug ellipticine to DNA in V79 cells transfected with human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol   64 : 289-295. Hardesty CT, Chaney NA, Mead JA (1972) The effect of route of administration on

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Marie Stiborová, Karel Naiman, Markéta Martínková, Václav Martínek, Martina Svobodová, Heinz Schmeiser and Eva Frei

para-anisidine and their hydrochlorides. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, No. 27, IARC, Lyon. IARC. (2006). Formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-terc-butoxypropan-2-ol. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans , Vol. 88 , pp. 39-325, IARC, Lyon. Mikšanová M, Novák P, Frei E, Stiborová M. (2004a). Metabolism of carcinogenic 2-nitroanisole by rat, rabbit, porcine and human hepatic cytosol. Collect Czech Chem Commun   69: 589

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Marie Stiborová, Jitka Poljaková, Eva Martínková, Lucie Bořek-Dohalská, Tomáš Eckschlager, Rene Kizek and Eva Frei

drug ellipticine and its hydroxy derivatives in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Collect Czech Chem Commun   69 : 603-615. Cinatl J Jr, Cinatl J, Driever PH, Kotchetkov R, Pouckova P, Kornhuber B and Schwabe D. (1997). Sodium valproate inhibits in vivo growth of human neuroblastoma cells. Anti-Cancer Drugs   8 : 958-63. Frei E, Bieler CA, Arlt VM, Wiessler M and Stiborová M. (2002). Covalent binding of the anticancer drug ellipticine to DNA in V79 cells transfected with human cytochrome P450 enzymes

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Dagmar Aimová, Jitka Poljaková, Věra Kotrbová, Michaela Moserová, Eva Frei, Volker Arlt and Marie Stiborová

-14. Bořek-Dohalská L, Frei E, Stiborová M (2004) DNA adduct formation by the anticancer drug ellipticine and its hydroxy derivatives in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Collect Czech Chem Commun   69 : 603-615. Frei E, Bieler CA, Arlt VM, Wiessler M, Stiborová M (2002) Covalent binding of the anticancer drug ellipticine to DNA in V79 cells transfected with human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol   64 : 289-95. Henderson CJ, Otto DM, Carrie D, Magnuson MA, McLaren AW, Rosewell I, Wolf CR (2003

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Karel Naiman, Helena Dračínská, Martin Dračínský, Markéta Martínková, Václav Martínek, Petr Hodek, Martin Štícha, Eva Frei and Marie Stiborová

of the aminophenols as evidenced by the induction of sister chromatid exchanges. Hum Toxicol   1 : 387-392. Mikšanová M, Novák P, Frei E, Stiborová M. (2004) Metabolism of carcinogenic 2-nitroanisole by rat, rabbit, porcine and human hepatic cytosol. Collect Czech Chem Commun   69 : 589-602. Naiman K, Dračínská H, Martínková M, Šulc M, Dračínský M, Kejíková L, Hodek P, Hudeček J, Liberda J, Schmeiser HH, Frei E, Stiborová M. (2008) Redox cycling in the metabolism of the environmental pollutant and suspected