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Open access

Kazimierz Rembiasz, Andrzej Budzyński, Jan Kulawik, Maciej Matłok, Marcin Migaczewski, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk and Filip Gołkowski

Laparoscopic Transperitoneal Approach to Adrenal Gland Malignancies

Even though there is not enough good data, the use of laparoscopic approach in malignant disease is regarded by some controversial issue. On the other hand it seems that transperitoneal access to the adrenal gland allows for effective and safe oncological removal of adrenal gland neoplasms.

The aim of the study was to present our experience with the use of transperitoneal approach in patients with adrenal gland malignancies.

Material and methods. From March 2003 till May 2009 we performed 200 laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomies. There were 82 hormonally silent tumors (1.5-14 cm in diameter) and 118 hormonally active (63 pheochromocytomas, 26 Conn's syndrome, 25 Cushing's syndrome and 4 virylizing tumors).

Results. 197 procedures were completed laparoscopically and 3 were converted (including one for inability to assess resectablility of the tumor). 14 tumors (7%) were overtly malignant; 7 arising form the adrenal (adrenal cortex - 3, pheochromocytoma - 3, lymphoma - 1) and 7 metastatic (squamous cell cancer of the lungs - 2, clear cell carcinoma of the kidney - 2, collecting duct carcinoma of the kindey - 1, hepatocellular cancer - 1, NET lung tumor - 1). Further 19 tumors (9.5%) were assessed histologically as potentially malignant (pheochromocytomas - 16, tumors of neural origin - 2, oncocytomas - 1). One malignant tumor was unresectable other were operated radically. Progression of the cancer was observed in 3 patients with metastatic tumors.

Conclusions. Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy allows for safe and radical removal of adrenal gland malignancies. Longer follow-up and larger patients volume are needed for better evaluation of long-term results.

Open access

Tomasz Miłek, Piotr Ciostek, Witold Woźniak, Andrzej Lewczuk, Robert Petryka, Jakub Słowik and Mirosław Jarosz

Preliminary Results of the use of Self-Expanding Nitinol Stents in Inoperable Gastrointestinal Cancers

The aim of the study was to present preliminary results of the palliative treatment of strictures and obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract in stage IV cancers with the use of self-expanding stents.

Material and methods. Within a one-year period, from October 2007 to September 2009, stent implantation in the gastrointestinal tract was performed in 32 patients. Eligibility for palliative treatment was determined on the basis of a clinical examination and diagnostic tests to assess cancer stage. Each patient was assessed on the Karnofsky performance scale. The condition for eligibility, except for emergent circumstances, was performance status below 70. Endoscopy to collect biopsy samples for histopathologic examination and abdomen and chest CT scans were performed. Local advancement of cancer with infiltration of other tissues, such as metastases to the liver, distant lymph nodes or other organs, determined the choice of palliative treatment. Moreover, the presence and severity of coexisting disorders were also thoroughly examined. The procedures were performed using a c-arm X-ray system and endoscope. Following the introduction of the endoscope to the area of cancerous narrowing, a guide tube was inserted through the stricture under fluoroscopic control. Under combined endoscopic and radiological control, after contrast administration above the narrowing, a stent to expand the stricture was placed and released. The result of stent placement was documented by radiologic photographs, and a subsequent X-ray check was performed 48 hours after stent implantation.

Results. A total of 33 stents were implanted in 32 patients. Problems with stent placement occurred in one patient. During implantation into a stricture secondary to sigmoid colon cancer, the stent slipped down and incompletely filled the tumor lumen. In this case, a short supplementary stent was added, which yielded a satisfactory result of the procedure. In another case, the stent migrated and adhered to the gastric wall, which further impaired passage through the patient's gastrointestinal tract. A feeding jejunostomy was performed in this patient, which was considered the best course due to the patient's extremely poor general condition.

Conclusions. 1. Stent implantation in the gastrointestinal tract lumen in the setting of inoperable carcinomas under endoscopic and X-ray control is effective and safe. 2. In the case of gastrointestinal tract sub-obstruction in patients with left colon cancers and in poor general condition, this procedure should be considered prior to pursuing surgical operations.

Open access

Thomas Comyns and Aoife Hannon

session- RPE method. The participants were asked to indicate which categories of players they used in the calculation of their squad average data and the results are presented in Table 1 . Table 1 Results related to the S&C coaches’ responses to questions regarding their implementation of the session-RPE method Session-RPE Implementation Questions Do you... Yes n (%) No n (%) 1. Collect session-RPE for all aspects of training that the players are exposed to 14 (70%) 6 (30%) 2. Use session-RPE method to calculate Training Load

Open access

Maria José Carvalho, Marisa Sousa, Gustavo Paipe, Gustavo Bavaresco and José Luis Felipe

: Economic impact of a small event on a midsize community. Recreational Sports Journal, 33(2), 119-128. DOI: 10.1123/rsj.33.2.119 Wilson, R. (2006). The economic impact of local sport events: Significant, limited or otherwise? A case study of four swimming events. Managing Leisure, 11(1), 57. DOI: 10.1080/13606710500445718 Wilton, J. & Nickerson, N. (2006). Collecting and using visitor spending data. Journal of Travel Research, 45(1), 17-25. DOI: 10.1177/0047287506288875

Open access

Xiaole Sun, Yang Yang, Lin Wang, Xini Zhang and Weijie Fu

. An in-shoe plantar pressure measuring system (T&T Medilogic Medizintechnik GmbH, Schönefeld, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressure data at 120 Hz during SR and BR with rearfoot and forefoot strike patterns (RFS and FFS, respectively). An insole contained a maximum of 240 force sensors, the number of which depended on insole size and shape, with dimensions of 0.6 × 0.4 cm and a working dynamic range of 6–640 kPa ( Figure 1 ). Each insole was calibrated using the manufacturer’s calibration device prior to the study. A small portable datalogger was attached to

Open access

Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil and Gavin Devereux

system), providing a pool of data that can support coaching decisions and tactical strategies implemented in soccer ( Carling et al., 2008 ). The VTS is a technology that records two-dimensional position data (x and y) at high sampling rates (over 25 Hz). The VTS is used to quantify external load variables during official competitions ( Barris and Button, 2008 ; Buchheit et al., 2014 ; Carling et al., 2008 ). More specifically, the VTS is used to collect and analyse time-motion data such as total distance covered (TD), number of changes of direction, acceleration

Open access

One-bin Lim, Jeong-ah Kim, Si-jeong Song, Heon-seock Cynn and Chung-hwi Yi


We investigated the effects of visual electromyography (EMG) biofeedback during side-lying shoulder external rotation exercise on the EMG amplitude for the posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, and infraspinatus/posterior deltoid EMG activity ratio. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were included. Subjects performed side-lying shoulder external rotation exercise with and without visual EMG biofeedback. Surface EMG was used to collect data from the posterior deltoid and infraspinatus muscles. The visual EMG biofeedback applied the pre-established threshold to prevent excessive posterior deltoid muscle contraction. A paired t-test was used to determine the significance of the measurements between without vs. with visual EMG biofeedback. Posterior deltoid activity significantly decreased while infraspinatus activity and the infraspinatus/posterior activity ratio significantly increased during side-lying shoulder external rotation exercise with visual EMG biofeedback. This suggests that using visual EMG biofeedback during shoulder external rotation exercise is a clinically effective training method for reducing posterior deltoid activity and increasing infraspinatus activity.

Open access

Latifa Abdalla


The topic of leadership has attracted considerable interest amongst academics and practitioners. Much of the interest in the area of leadership is based on explicit and implicit claims that leadership styles are linked to organizational performance. This study aimed to examine the transformational leadership style among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 16 female sports leaders from the Kingdom of Bahrain participated in this study. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to determine the transformational leadership style of individuals. A demographic questionnaire was also administered to collect participants’ personal data. The results indicated that transformational leadership style is moderate among women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain, thus we need to develop the leadership skills of women sports leaders in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Open access

Mateusz Rynkiewicz and Tadeusz Rynkiewicz

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis of Body Composition and Muscle Mass Distribution in Advanced Kayakers

Purpose. The study aims at assessment of body composition and muscle mass distribution in advanced kayakers. Kayak paddlers should be characterized by large body mass with a significant percentage of muscle mass, especially in the trunk region. Basic procedures. The sample consisted of 26 kayakers. The body composition and muscle mass distribution were determined based on bioelectrical impedance analysis. Main findings. The subjects had large muscle mass and average fat mass. The percentage of body fat mass in the kayakers was observed to increase with age, whereas the muscle mass percentage decreased, with the exception of the limbs. Conclusions. BIA of body composition and distribution of muscle mass should be a standard diagnostic method to collect data on proper adaptation of kayakers to their training programs.

Open access

Simona Ionescu, Denis Parisot and Adrian Irode

Le Sport en Milieu Carceral: la Perception des Detenus sur la Pratique Sportive

The aim of this paper is to analyze the importance of the sport's practice in prison for the prisoners. During the period of detention, the prisoners must participate in the reeducation programs which are organized for them with the purpose to recognize the gravity of their act, recognize their guilty, accepting the detention, to avoid the renewal and to help the reeducation. In all this education programs, the sport has a significant role in the accomplishment of the aims and can help in the transmission and communication process. As methods we used the questionnaire to collect the data and the graphics to present the results which point out the fact that the effect of sport practice has a positive effect on the physical and mental balance for the prisoners. In this purpose, the contribution of the professional personnel in the field is demanded.