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Vasil N. Iliev and Irena T. Andonova


Currently, the most commonly performed surgeries for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are mesh midurethral slings (MUS). They are minimally invasive outpatient procedures, and they are as effect-tive as traditional suburethral slings, open retropubic colposuspension (Burch, Marshall-Marchetti), and laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension. They have a short operative time and fewer postoperative complications. In the paper we present results from a prospective study of 214 patients with SUI who underwent midurethral sling placement: 68 patients with retropubic slings (TVT) and 146 patients with transobturator slings (TVT-O) followed over 12 months. The operations were performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the Medical Faculty, Skopje, R. Macedonia and at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, General Hospital, Sibenik, Croatia. All MUS placements (TVT and TVT-O) were performed by one surgeon (urogynaecologist) using the standard surgical technique and operative and postoperative protocol for those procedures. TVT and TVT-O meshes are polypropylene macroporous meshes produced by “Ethicon” We evaluated mesh complications related to the procedure (Table 1) and complications specific to the mesh (Table 2). In the article are presented the data from up-to-date literature related to the evaluated topic parallel to our results. We can conclude that all our findings on the evaluated groups are comparable with the data from competent literature. Instead of a conclusion we would like to suggest continuous follow-up of all minimally invasive procedures with midurethral slings placement for collecting experience of side-effects and complications and improving those procedures which are gold standard today in the treatment of SUI.

Open access

Golubinka Bosevska, Elizabeta Janceska, Gordana Kuzmanovska, Vladimir Mikik and Nikola Panovski


The aim: To present and compare different Nucleic Acid Testing assays used for laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infection in our country.

Materials and methods: Respiratory samples used were nose and throat swabs. The RNA extraction was performed with a QIAamp viral RNA kit. During the season 2009–2010 the first 25 samples were tested with: conventional gel-based RT-PCR and CDC rtRT-PCR using published specific matrix and HA gene primers and probes for influenza virus typing and subtyping.

Results: Of 25 samples tested with conventional RT-PCR 7(28%) were positive for influenza A, but negative for A/H1seasonal and A/H3. Retested with rtRT-PCR 9(36%) were positive for influenza A, 8(32%) were positive for A/H1pdm and 1(4%) was A/H3. Two samples positive with rtRT-PCR for influenza A were negative with RT-PCR. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR in comparison with rtRT-PCR is 100% and the specificity is 88.89%. Positive predictive value for RT-PCR is 77.78%, and negative predictive value is 100%. RT-PCR is a four-step and rtRT-PCR a one-step procedure. The turn-around time of RT-PCR is 6 hours and for rtRT-PCR it is 2 hours.

Discussion and conclusion: For surveillance purposes nose and throat swabs are the more easy and practical to collect. It was proved that RT-PCR is too laborious, multi-step and time-consuming. The sensitivity of both assays is equal. The specificity of rtRT-PCR is higher. NAT assays for detection of influenza viruses have become an integral component of the surveillance programme in our country. They provide a fast, accurate and sensitive detection of influenza.

Open access

Nadica Ristoska-Bojkovska

., Tonshoff B., Wunsch R., Darge K., Clorius J., Troger J., Functional and morphologic evaluation of congenital urinary tract dilatation by using combined static-dynamic MR urography: findings in kidneys with a single collecting system. Radiology 2001; 224: 683 - 694.