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Eun-Kee Park, Sally K. Mak and Bruce D. Hammock

References Burg MB. (2002). Response of renal inner medullary epithelial cells to osmotic stress. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 133 : 661-666. Cai Q, Dmitrieva NI, Michea LF, Rocha G, Ferguson D and Burg MB. (2003). Toxicity of acetaminophen, salicylic acid, and caff eine for fi rst-passage rat renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306 : 35-42. Ferraro PM, Costanzi S, Naticchia A, Sturniolo A and Gambaro G. (2010). Low level exposure to cadmium increases the risk of

Open access

M. Veera Prasad, Amit Agrawal, S. Satish Kumar and B.V. Subrahmanyan

References 1.Shaban S, Eid H, Barka E, Abu-Zidan F. Towards a national trauma registry for the United Arab Emirates. BMC Research Notes 2010;3:187. 2.Ringdal KG, Lossius HM, Jones JM, et al. Collecting core data in severely injured patients using a consensus trauma template: an international multicentre study. Crit Care 2011;15:R237. 3.Dick WF, Baskett PJ. Recommendations for uniform reporting of data following major trauma--the Utstein style. A report of a working party of the International Trauma Anaesthesia

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Gergő Ráduly, Zsuzsánna Pap, Loránd Dénes, Annamária Szántó and Zoltán Pávai

development by the Mdm2/Mdm4-p53 axis. J Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 9:26-33. 5. Liu H, Wintour EM - Aquaporins in development – a review. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:18. 6. Hua Y, Jiang W, Zhang W et al - Expression and significance of aquaporins during pregnancy. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2013;18:1373-83. 7. Jung HJ, Kwon TH - Molecular mechanisms regulating aquaporin-2 in kidney collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016; 311:1318–F1328. 8. Takata K, Matsuzaki T, Tajika Y et al - Localization and trafficking of aquaporin 2 in the kidney

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Loredana Mariana Aftenie, Irina Franciuc, Alina Martinescu and Adina Honcea

References 1. FREEMAN B, POWELL J, BALL D, HILL L, CRAIG I, PLOMIN R. DNA by mail: an inexpensive and noninvasive method for collecting DNA samples from widely dispersed populations. Behav Genet. 1997;27:251-257. 2. KING IB, SATIA-ABOUTA J, THORNQUIST MD, BIGLER J, PATTERSON RE, KRISTAL AR, SHATTUCK AL, POTTER JD, WHITE E. Buccal cell DNA yield, quality, and collection costs: Comparison of methods for large-scale studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:1130-1133. 3. HANSEN TV, SIMONSEN

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Sebastijan Forstnerič, Nino Fijačko, Majda Pajnkihar and Gregor Štiglic


Introduction. Accelerated computerization of health systems begun in Slovenia in 2008 with the eZdravje (eHealth) project. Various aspects of the system enable patients to track different aspects of their health care more efficiently. The eNaročanje (eScheduling) part enables patients to be more actively integrated into the health services, as well as presents significant help for administrative work and more time for health education.

Aim. The aim of our research was to show which type of patient appointment scheduling is the least burdensome for nurses.

Material and methods. We used a quantitative research methodology. Collecting data took place in May 2017. We gathered the various patterns of scheduling patients for appointments in a single month at an outpatient care unit in the north-eastern region of Slovenia. We collected the data concerning the time needed to perform different patients’ appointment scheduling and we interpreted the data with the help of descriptive statistics.

Results and conclusion. Between January 2016 and January 2017 less than 1% of patients made appointments through eNaročanje. Since January 2017, when eNaročanje started in studied unit, the percentage of patients who made their appointments through eNaročanje increased, and by May 2017 there were 60 (20%) of the overall 298 patients in the study who used the system. We came to the conclusion that in the 17 workdays in May 2017 there were 126 (42%) appointments made by men and 172 (58%) by women. An average time spent personally or on the phone calls scheduling was significantly higher than the time spent through the eNaročanje service. We have shown that out of 17 workdays, the nurse spends more than an entire workday for the patient appointment scheduling tasks (8 hours, 13 minutes and 31 seconds). Information and communication based solutions can bring many advantages, especially regarding the time burden challenges that the nurses currently face, optimization of administrative work as well as promoting health care through education of patients.

Open access

Anna Cisińska


Introduction. Nutrition is vital for both human health and condition, but in a special way, it is essential for proper physical and intellectual development during adolescence. Providing the body with essential nutrients, including vitamins and trace elements also affects the functioning of a young person in a school environment. There is the energetic value of food, as well the time and frequency of its consumption, which affects the effectiveness of nutrition. At the same time, the irregularities in nutrition lead to many disorders and diseases, including overweight, obesity, anemia, anorexia.

Aim. The aim of the study was to collect information about mid-schools students and draw conclusions that might be useful for further planning of educational activities promoting health.

Material and methods. The survey questionnaire was conducted among 218 students of classes I-III selected at random. They were all students of junior high schools located in Łódź, both public and non-public ones. The analysis was conducted on the basis of anonymous questionnaires.

Results. In the study group, it was observed that the first and second breakfast was eaten by 60.5% and 42.6% of students respectively. Over 11% never ate breakfast before going to school. A high percentage of children (80%) declared that usually they ate sandwiches.

Conclusions. Abnormalities in nutrition relate to a significant proportion of junior high school students. They often result from ignorance, haste, routines or negligence for which mostly parents are responsible. The scale of the phenomenon points to the need to implement educational activities among students and information campaigns targeted at parents, which should be carried at schools.

Open access

Tomasz Stankiewicz and Barbara Błaszczyk


The objective of the study was to determine the concentration of BMP-15 and GDF-9 in the fluid of follicular cysts and ovarian follicles, and to compare their concentrations in mono- and polyoocyte follicles in gilts. The study involved two experiments conducted on the ovaries collected post-slaughter from gilts (7-8 months old). The first experiment covered 31 follicular single cyst gilts (15-25 mm in diameter) and 41 gilts without cysts. Follicular fluid from follicles of 8-10 mm in diameter (n=41) and 5-8 mm in diameter (n=41), and cystic fluid (n=31) were collected for analysis. The second experiment involved collecting follicular fluid from poly- (n=19) and monooocyte (n=22) follicles. The concentration of BMP-15 and GDF-9 was then determined in the samples using specimen-specific ELISA kits. The differences in the concentration of these factors were calculated by means of analysis of variance and a posthoc test. Duncan’s multiple range test was used to verify the significance of differences at P<0.05 and P<0.01. In addition, correlations between the factors were calculated. BMP-15 and GDF-9 levels in the cystic fluid were significantly higher than those in the follicular fluid (P<0.01). However, no differences were observed between various size follicles or between mono- and polyoocyte follicles. BMP-15 and GDF-9 concentrations were found to be positively correlated (P<0.01). Differences in BMP-15 and GDF-9 concentrations in ovarian follicles and follicular cysts, as evidenced by our study, indicate that these factors may be related to folliculogenesis disorders in gilts. What is more, the number of oocytes in ovarian follicles does not influence the intrafollicular concentration of BMP-15 and GDF-9.

Open access

Lan-Ping Shi, Chun-Hong Liu, Jian-Fen Cao, Yan Lu, Fan-Xin Xuan, Yu-Ting Jiang and Jin-Yang Zhou



This study aimed to develop and apply a closed-loop medication administration system in a hospital in order to reduce medication administration errors (MAEs).


The study was implemented in four pilot general wards. We used a before-and-after design to collect oral medication administration times before and after the implementation of the closed-loop medication administration system, evaluated MAE alert logs after the intervention, and conducted a survey of the nurses’ satisfaction with the system in the pilot wards.


(a) Nursing time of oral medication administration: before the adoption of the closed-loop medication administration system, the average nursing time was 31.56 ± 10.88 minutes (n = 78); after the adoption of the system, the time was 18.74 ± 5.60 minutes (n = 54). Independent sample t-tests showed a significant difference between two groups (t = 8.85, P <0.00). (b) Degree of nurses’ satisfaction with the closed-loop medication administration system: 60.00% (n = 42) of nurses considered the system to be helpful for their work and nearly half of the nurses (47.14%, n = 33) believed that the system could facilitate clinical work and reduce workload; 51.43% (n = 36) believed that the system could reduce checking time and enhance work efficiency; 82.86% (n = 58) believed that the system was helpful in improving checking accuracy to reduce MAEs and ensure patient safety. More than 60% of the nurses considered the system to be a method that could help to track MAEs to improve nursing quality. (c) The MAE alert logs during observation period: it revealed only 27 alerts from the repeated scans of 3,428 instances of medication administration.


The nurses were satisfied with the closed-loop medication administration system because it improved their work efficiency and reduced their workload. The current investigation was limited by time; therefore, further research is needed to more closely examine the relationship between the system and MAEs.

Open access

Verica Mrvić, Rizah Avdić, Nedžad Hadžiomerović, Faruk Tandir, Branislav Prokić, Ratko Tomašević and Bogomir Bolka Prokić

: Circulation of blood through the canine kidney. Amer J Vet Res 1952. 13:236-245. 25. Kürtül I, Dursun N, Özcan S: Relation of arterial vascularization of the kidney and adrenal gland of the german shepherd dogs. J Fac Vet Med Univ Istanbul 2002, 28:65-71. 26. Raj JU, Hillyard R, Kaapa P, Anderson J, Gropper M: Pulmonary vascular pressure profile in 2-3-week-old,5-6-week-old and adult ferrets. Respir physiol 1990, 82:307-315. 27. Sampaio FJ, Aragao AH: Anatomical relationship between the intrarenal arteries and the kidney collecting system. J Urol 1990, 143

Open access

Iveta Ondriová


Introduction. The burnout syndrome is significantly associated with nursing profession. Individuals suffering from the syndrome manifest important health problems. More information about prevalence and risk factors for burnout is needed to prevent the syndrome and to determine the most appropriate clinical interventions when the disorder appears.

Aim. The aim of the submitted thesis is to map existence of burnout syndrome in the nurse profession, to compare its existence according to the type department and to find out impact of the demographic characteristics on the burnout syndrome origin.

Material and methods. In the empirical part we describe work method, data analyses, their processing and statistical testing. To collect information we used standardized questionnaire, Burnout Measure (BM) – burnout questionnaire. Acquired data are interpreted in charts.

Results. Result of our research is to find out that existence of burnout syndrome in profession of nurse is considerable, while we do not observe significant differences between different types of workplace. We have identified by statistical processing the impact of demographic index on the occurrence of burnout syndrome. As statistically important we consider in light of burnout syndrome occurrence characteristic, age and duration of practice. Result of our research is to find out that existence of burnout syndrome in profession is considerable, while we do not observe significant differences between different types of workplace.

Conclusions. Based on our results we recognize that it is necessary to strengthen the burnout syndrome prevention among nurses. The occurrence of burnout syndrome was confirmed in our study. The average value of BM indices in our sample was 3.40 for all nurses, a BM index of 3.44 for nurses in sample A and a BM index of 3.36 for nurses in group B. These average values of burnout clearly show that their averages are in the range of “presence of signals of burnout” In this category of the BM index there are significant signs of burnout, but it is not developed burnout syndrome. One alarming finding was that three nurses in sample B found themselves in BM index band 5, which means an emergency state in which it is necessary to seek professional help.