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Václav Blažek

Abstract

The Beja (Beḍawye) language is the only representative of the North Cushitic branch of the Cushitic languages. Although there are several dialects, e.g. Amar’ar, Arteiga, Beni Amer, Bishari, Hadendowa, Halenga etc., scholars collecting the lexical data of the Beja language usually do not distinguish between individual dialects and frequently summarize material of two or more dialects (e.g. Reinisch: Beni Amer, Bishari, Hadendowa), or they determine only the area, where their data were collected (e.g. Wedekinds: Eritrea; Hudson: Port Soudan and Tokar). Roper indicated the dialect Hadendowa, but according to MORIN (1995: 22) it was a transitional interdialect of the Sinkat area. In this case it is impossible to separate specific lexicons of individual dialects and the only solution is to compare the lexical materials in dependence, who has collected them. Although there is only one distinctive phonetic isogloss dividing the Beja dialect continuum with typical u in the north vs. i in the south (VANHOVE 2006), the result of the present study demonstrates a relatively high internal diversity of the Beja lexicon. Two most incomplete or deviant sources, namely Munzinger and Bender, indicate the disintegration of common Beja to the 9th and 11th cent. respectively. The common share between the remaining idioms is c. 95% or higher, corresponding to the beginning of their disintegration around AD 1200. This younger dating better agrees with at least partial intelligibility between the tribal dialects of Beja.

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Gábor Takács

Lexica Afroasiatica IX

Comparative-historical Afro-Asiatic linguistics has undergone significant development over the past half century, since the appearance of Essai comparatif sur le vocabulaire et la phonétique du chamitosémitique (1947) by Marcel Cohen. This revolutionary and fundamental synthesis concluded the second great period of the comparative research on Afro-Asiatic lexicon (the so-called "old school", cf. EDE I 2-4). During the third period (second half of the 20th century), whose beginning was hallmarked by the names of J.H. Greenberg and I.M. Diakonoff, a huge quantity of new lexical material (both descriptive and comparative) has been published, including a few most recent attempts (either unfinished or rather problematic) at compiling an Afro-Asiatic comparative dictionary (SISAJ a I-II, HCVA I-V, HSED, Ehret 1995).

During my current work on the Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian (EDE), I have collected a great number of new AA parallels, which - to the best of my knowledge - have not yet been proposed in the literature or were observed independently from me.1 Along the EDE project (and the underlying "Egyptian etymological word catalogue"), I have started collecting AA roots (not attested in Egyptian) for a separate Afro-Asiatic root catalogue in late 1999.

The series Lexica Afroasiatica started in 20022 for communicating new Afro-Asiatic lexical correspondences observed recently during my work, which may later serve as basis of a new synthesis of the Afro-Asiatic comparative lexicon. The present part of this series is a collection of additional new Afro-Asiatic etymologies with the Proto-Afro-Asiatic initial bilabial nasal (* m-) observed after my research periods at Institut für Afrikanische Sprachwisenschaften of Frankfurt a/M (in 1999-2000 and 2002) guided by Prof. H. Jungraithmayr. The numeration of the etymological entries is continuous beginning from the first part of the series Lexica Afroasiatica.

Each entry is headed by the proposed PA root (as tentatively reconstructed by myself). Author names are placed after the quoted linguistic forms in square brackets [] mostly in an abbreviated form (a key can be found at the end of the paper). The lexical data in the individual lexicon entries have been arranged in the order of the current classification of the Afro-Asiatic daughter languages (originating from J. H. Greenberg 1955; 1963 and I. M. Diakonoff 1965) in 5 (or 6) equivalent branches: (1) Semitic, (2) Egyptian, (3) Berber, (4) Cushitic, (5) Omotic (cometimes conceived as West Cushitic), (6) Chadic. For a detailed list of all daughter languages cf. EDE I 9-34. The number of vertical strokes indicates the closeness of the language units from which data are quoted: ||| separate branches (the 6 largest units within the family), || groups (such as East vs. South Cushitic or West vs. East Chadic), while | divides data from diverse sub-groups (e.g., Angas-Sura vs. North Bauchi within West Chadic).

Since we know little about the Proto-Afro-Asiatic vowel system, the proposed list of the reconstructed Proto-Afro-Asiatic forms is arranged according to consonantal roots (even the nominal roots). Sometimes, nevertheless, it was possible to establish the root vowel, which is given in the paper additionally in brackets. The lexical parallels suggested herein, are based on the preliminary results in reconstructing the consonant correspondences achieved by the Russian team of I. M. Diakonoff (available in a number of publications3) as well as on my own observations refining the Russian results (most importantly Takács 2001). The most important results can be summarized as follows. The labial triad * b-* p-* f remained unchanged in Egyptian, South Cushitic, and Chadic, while the dental series * d-* t-* t was kept as such by Semitic and South Cushitic (AA * t continued as * d in Berber, Cushitic and Chadic, and it was merged into t vs. d in Egyptian). The fine distinction of the diverse sibilant affricates and spirants (AA * c, *, * c, * s, *č, *, * c, *š, *ĉ, *, *ŝ) was best preserved in Semitic, South Cushitic and West Chadic (while some of these phonemes suffered a merger in other branches and groups). The Russian scholars assumed a triad of postvelar (uvulear) stops with a voiceless spirant counterpart: * g, *g, * q, and *h, the distinction of which was retained in Cushitic and Chadic, but was merged into *h in Semitic and Egyptian. In a number of cases, however, it is still difficult to reconstruct exactly the root consonants on the basis of the available cognates (esp. when these are from the modern branches, e.g., Berber, Cushitic-Omotic, or Chadic). In such cases, the corresponding capitals are used (denoting only the place of articulation).4

This part contains new Afro-Asiatic roots with * n- followed by a labial.

Open access

Gábor Takács

Abstract

Gábor Takács. Lexica Afroasiatica VI. Lingua Posnaniensis, vol. L IV (1)/2012. The Poznań Society for the Advancement of the Arts and Sciences. PL ISSN 0079-4740, ISBN 978-83-7654-103-7, pp. 99-132.

Comparative-historical Afro-Asiatic linguistics has undergone a significant development over the past half century, since the appearence Essai comparatif sur le vocabulaire et la phonétique du chamitosémitique (1947) by Marcel Cohen. This revolutionary and fundamental synthesis concluded the second great period of the comparative research on Afro-Asiatic lexicon (the so-called “old school”, cf. E DE I 2-4). During the third period (second half of the 20th century), whose beginning was hallmarked by the names of J .H. Greenberg and I.M. Diakonoff, an enormous quantity of new lexical material (both descriptive and comparative) has been published, including a few most recent attempts (either unfinished or rather problematic) at compiling an Afro-Asiatic compartive dictionary (SISAJ a I-III, H CVA I-V, H SED, Ehret 1995).

During my current work on the Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian (Leiden, since 1999-, E .J. Brill), Ihave collected a great number of new AA parallels, which - to the best of my knowledge - have not yet been proposed in the literature (I did my best to note it wherever Inoticed an overlapping with the existing Afro-Asiatic dictionaries). Along the E DE project (and the underlying “Egyptian etymological word catalogue”), Ihave started collecting AA roots (not attested in Egyptian) for a separate Afro- Asiatic root catalogue in late 1999.1

The series Lexica Afroasiatica started in 20022 in order to contribute to the existing and published materials of comparative Afro-Asiatic lexicon with new lexical correspondences observed recently during my work, which may later serve as basis of a new synthesis of the Afro-Asiatic comparative lexicon. The present part of this series is a collection of new Afro-Asiatic etymologies with the Proto-Afro- Asiatic initial bilabial nasal (*m-), which results directly from my research at Institut für Afrikanische Sprachwisenschaften of Frankfurt a/M (in 1999-2000 and 2002) guided by Prof. H . Jungraithmayr.3

The numeration of the etymological entries is continuous beginning from the first part of the series Lexica Afroasiatica.

Each entry is headed by the proposed PAA root (as tentatively reconstructed by myself). Author names are placed after the quoted linguistic forms in square brackets [] mostly in an abbreviated form (a key can be found at the end of the paper). The lexical data in the individual lexicon entries have been arranged in the order of the current classification of the Afro-Asiatic daughter languages (originating from J.H. Greenberg 1955, 1963 and I.M. Diakonoff 1965) in 5 (or 6) equivalent branches: (1) Semitic, (2) Egyptian, (3) Berber, (4) Cushitic, (5) Omotic (cometimes conceived as West Cushitic), (6) Chadic. For a detailed list of all daughter languages cf. E DE I 9-34. The number of vertical strokes indicate the closeness of the language units from which data are quoted: ||| separate branches (the 6 largest units within the family), || groups (such as East vs. South Cushitic or West vs. East Chadic), while | divides data from diverse sub-groups (e.g., Angas-Sura vs. North Bauchi within West Chadic).

Since we know little about the Proto-Afro-Asiatic vowel system, the proposed list of the reconstructed Proto-Afro-Asiatic forms is arranged according to consonantal roots (even the nominal roots). Sometimes, nevertheless, it was possible to establish the root vowel, which is given in the paper additionally in brackets. The lexical parallels suggested herein, are based on the preliminary results in reconstructing the consonant correspondences achieved by the Russian team of I.M. Diakonoff (available in a number of publications4) as well as on my own observations refining the Russian results (most importantly Takács 2001). The most important results can be summarized as follows. The labial triad *b - *p - *f remained unchanged in Egyptian, South Cushitic, and Chadic, while the dental series *d - *t - *s was kept as such by Semitic and South Cushitic (AA *s continued as *T in Berber, Cushitic and Chadic, and it was merged into t vs. d in Egyptian). The fine distinction of the diverse sibilant affricates and spirants (AA *c, *μ, *@, *s, *D, *¸, *E, *b, *ĉ, *H, *ŝ) was best preserved in Semitic, South Cushitic and West Chadic (while some of these phonemes suffered a merger in other branches and groups). The Russian scholars assumed a triad of postvelar (uvulear) stops with a voiceless spirant counterpart: *-, *", *q, and *¯, the distinction of which was retained in Cushitic and Chadic, but was merged into *¯ in Semitic and Egyptian. In a number of cases, however, it is still difficult to exactly reconstruct the root consonants on the basis of the available cognates (esp. when these are from the modern branches, e.g., Berber, Cushitic-Omotic, or Chadic). In such cases, the corresponding capitals are used (denoting only the place of articulation).

Open access

Anne Lovering Rounds

Abstract

The decade after the attacks of 9/11 and the fall of the World Trade Center saw a proliferation of New York-themed literary anthologies from a wide range of publishers. With titles like Poetry After 9/11, Manhattan Sonnet, Poems of New York, Writing New York, and I Speak of the City, these texts variously reflect upon their own post-9/11 plurivocality as preservative, regenerative, and reconstructive. However, the work of such anthologies is more complex than filling with plurivocality the physical and emotional hole of Ground Zero. These regional collections operate on the dilemma of all anthologies: that between collecting and editing. Every anthology, and every anthologist, negotiates the relationship between what is present and what is missing. In light of some of the emerging and established scholarship on the history of the English-language anthology, this article reads closely the declarative paratexts and the silent but equally powerful canonical choices of several different post-9/11 poetry anthologies. In so doing, the article comes to suggest the ways the anthology’s necessary formal incorporation of absence and presence, rather than its plurivocality alone, connects collections of New York’s literature to the fraught discourse of memorialization and rebuilding at the site of the World Trade Center.

Open access

David Allen and Agata Handley

Abstract

In White Noise (1985) by Don DeLillo, two characters visit a famous barn, described as the “most photographed barn in America” alongside hordes of picture-taking tourists. One of them complains the barn has become a simulacrum, so that “no one sees” the actual barn anymore. This implies that there was once a real barn, which has been lost in the “virtual” image. This is in line with Plato’s concept of the simulacrum as a false or “corrupt” copy, which has lost all connection with the “original.” Plotinus, however, offered a different definition: the simulacrum distorts reality in order to reveal the invisible, the Ideal.

There is a real building which has been called “the most photographed barn in America”: the Thomas Moulton Barn in the Grand Teton National Park. The location—barn in the foreground, mountain range towering over it—forms a striking visual composition. But the site is not only famous because it is photogenic. Images of the barn in part evoke the heroic struggles of pioneers living on the frontier. They also draw on the tradition of the “American sublime.” Ralph Waldo Emerson defined the sublime as “the influx of the Divine mind into our mind.” He followed Plotinus in valuing art as a means of “revelation”—with the artist as a kind of prophet or “seer.”

The photographers who collect at the Moulton Barn are themselves consciously working within this tradition, and turning themselves into do-it-yourself “artist-seers.” They are the creators, not the slaves of the simulacrum.

Open access

Brygida Gasztold

Abstract

The focus of my article is a unique place, the Yiddish Book Center in Amherst, Massachusetts, which connects Yiddish culture with the American one, the experience of the Holocaust with the descendants of the survivors, and a modern idea of Jewishness with the context of American postmodernity. Created in the 1980s, in the mind of a young and enthusiastic student Aaron Lansky, the Yiddish Book Center throughout the years has become a unique place on the American cultural map. Traversing the continents and crossing borders, Lansky and his co-workers for over thirty years have been saving Yiddish language books from extinction. The Center, however, has long stopped to be merely a storage house for the collection, but instead has grown into a vibrant hub of Yiddishkeit in the United States. Its employees do not only collect, distribute, digitalize and post online the forgotten volumes, but also engage in diverse activities, scholarly and cultural, that promote the survival of the tradition connected with Yiddish culture. They educate, offering internships and fellowships to students interested in learning Yiddish from across the world, translate, publish, and exhibit Yiddish language materials, in this way finding new users for the language whose speakers were virtually annihilated by the Holocaust. To honour their legacy, a separate project is aimed at conducting video interviews that record life testimonies of the speakers of Yiddish. Aaron Lansky’s 2004 memoir, Outwitting History, provides an interesting insight into the complexities of his arduous life mission. Today, the Center lives its own unique life, serving the world of academia and Yiddishkeit enthusiasts alike.

Open access

Eva Rohrhofer

Wilbur Schramm. Four Theories of the Press: The Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility and Soviet Communist Concepts of What the Press Should Be and Do. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1956 Stockmann, Daniela. “Information Overload? Collecting, Managing, and Analyzing Chinese Media Content.” In Contemporary Chinese Politics: New Sources, Methods, and Field Strategies, edited by Allen Carlson et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 107-125 Strohmeier, Gerd. Politik und Massenmedien: Eine

Open access

Kassiani Grammenou, Karagiorgos Ioannis, Nikolaos Blanas, Ioanna, Heidy Tzika, Kleio Tzoumerkioti and Alexandra-Antonia Sideridou

Abstract

The Departments of Higher Education that have incorporated postgraduate courses in their curriculum must acquire provision and adaptability mechanisms so that the courses can correspond to the current and future needs of their students. Important factors, such as many disadvantages that the extremely competitive postgraduate courses abroad face, compared to the postgraduate courses in Greece, lead the potential students to choose the Greek ones. This research paper aims to find the right methodology for the postgraduate courses to attract more students. Specifically the research will be conducted through questionnaires, using Likert method and SPSS system for the processing of data. Our goal is to collect primary data from active postgraduate students of the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly. The results of the research will serve as useful tools for the administrative members of both Higher Education Universities and Technological Education Institutes, as well for the teachers, since they can showcase the Greek postgraduate courses in comparison to the ones abroad.

Open access

Erick Wara, Peter J. O. Aloka and Benson Charles Odongo

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional engagement and academic achievement among secondary school students of Manga Sub County, Nyamira County, Kenya. The study was hinged on the Self Determination theoretical perspective. The concurrent triangulation design of the mixed methods approach was employed. From the target population of 1750 form four students, 35 Principals and 35 Guidance and Counselling teachers, 316 students, 11 Principals and 11 Guidance and counselling teachers, and 11 student leaders were randomly sampled for the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the students, while interview schedules were used to collect data from Principals, Guidance and Counselling teachers and student leaders. The face validity of the research instruments was determined by experts from the department of Psychology and Educational Foundations of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology. Reliability was ascertained by the internal consistency method using Cronbach’s alpha, and a reliability coefficient of 0.849 was obtained for the questionnaire. Inferential statistics from quantitative data were analyzed using Pearson’s Product correlation and regression analysis with the aid of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Qualitative data from interviews were analyzed thematically. The study revealed that there was a statistically significant moderate positive correlation(r=.354, N=312, p<.05) between emotional engagement and academic achievement among the students, with an increase in emotional engagement occasioning an improvement in academic achievement. The study recommended that teacher counsellors should adopt appropriate therapy techniques geared towards the enhancement of emotional engagement of all students in the schools of their jurisdiction in order to boost their chances of doing better in their studies.

Open access

Christine Mwajuma, Peter J.O. Aloka and Pamela A. Raburu

Abstract

Teenage motherhood is a worldwide problem with 36.4 million girls giving birth before the age of 18 years in developing world. The present study investigated the relationship between attitude towards guidance and counseling programme and adjustment of re-admitted teenage mothers in selected Kenyan secondary schools. The study employed Ex-post facto Research Design. The target population of the study was 242 readmitted teenage mothers from selected schools in Ugenya Sub County. The sample size comprised 138 readmitted teenage mothers who are integrated back to school after going through the bridge center programmes and 104 readmitted teenage mothers who are integrated back to school without going through the bridge center programmes using Simple random sampling technique. The study used questionnaires for readmitted teenage mothers to collect data. Experts from the Department of Psychology and Educational Foundation in Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology ascertained the face, construct and content validity of the readmitted teenage mothers’ questionnaires. In this study internal consistency reliability of the instruments was obtained by computing Cronbach’s alpha (α) using SPSS and a co-efficient of r= 0.783 was reported. The data from questionnaires was analyzed using inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation, and Regression analysis. The findings indicated that the relationship between readmitted teenage mothers attitude towards Guidance and Counselling and adjustment was positive moderate and significant (r = .550, n=166, p<.05). The study recommended that School principals should be entrusted to provide comprehensive programs to ensure holistic adjustment of the teenage mothers in schools.