Rea Lujić and Silvija Hanžić Deda
This case study examines the perspective of plurilingual primary school students on three aspects of their language use: code switching, positive language transfer and translation. In other words, the research question attempted to be answered in this paper is whether plurilingual primary school students use their communicative repertoires purposefully and strategically for their communication, acquisition, and learning of the languages. The research was conducted in a class of eighteen third-graders who attended an international primary school in Zagreb, with the average age of 9. Two questionnaires and a semi-structured interview were used to collect data about the students’ language background, their language use, and their motives for engaging in code-switching, positive language transfer, and translation. In this research, the majority of the participants reported code-switching, the use of positive language transfer and translation. The findings also suggest the students are aware of the benefits that accompany plurilingualism, and that most of the participants possess significant metalinguistic awareness regardless of their young age. To sum up, this case study brings a valuable insight into the plurilingual world of primary school children and the development of their metalinguistic awareness.
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Joash Okello Aloo, Jack Odongo Ajowi and Peter Jairo O. Aloka
The study investigated the influence of Teachers Performance Appraisal (TPA) policy on timeliness in the implementation of the curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya. The study adopted an Ex post facto design. Additionally, the study population consisted of 5450 teachers, 334 Principals, the TSC-County Director and 334 Deputy Principals of public secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 179 Principals and 179 Deputy Principals. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the Principals and Deputy Principals. Document analysis guide was used to collect data which was not readily obtained through questionnaires. Reliability of the instruments for data collection was tested by assessing the scale’s internal consistency using Crobanch’s alpha and reliability coefficient of at least 0.7 was achieved in all the sub-scales of the questionnaire. Validity was determined by experts in Educational Administration. Quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed by using inferential statistics, for instance, Linear Regression analysis and Pearson Correlation. The study established that TPA policy had a positive significant influence on; timeliness in curriculum implementation (r=.604, p<.05), curriculum evaluation by teachers (r =.726, p<.05). The TPA was established to be a significant predictor of the timelines in curriculum implementation [F (1, 316) = 181.90, p < .05]. The study recommends that TSC should enforce TPA policy and use it as a tool for promoting and deploying teachers into leadership positions. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should guide every school to come up with syllabus coverage monitoring tool that can be administered alongside TPA.
Vera Arhin, Tabitha Wang’eri and Edward Kigen
This research investigated the impact of academic advising on student retention in distance learning at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Explanatory sequential mixed methods design was adopted for the study. The multistage sampling technique was used to sample 727 student participants from a sampling frame of 8731. Four academic advisors and three counsellors at the College of Distance were purposively selected for the study. Further, 16 students who had dropped out from the college were sampled using the snowball sampling technique. A researcher-self constructed questionnaire and a semi-structured interview guide were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analyses of qualitative data were done using Merriam analytical coding process. At an alpha level of .05 academic advising made a non-significant contribution to prediction (p = .10) which implies that academic advising is not a significant predictor of student retention in distance learning. The study concluded by recommending that academic advisory services should be provided in a practical manner to address the specific needs of students at the College of Distance Education of the University of Cape Coast.
Pirjo Harjanne, Claudio Díaz Larenas and Seppo Tella
This article reports Chilean and Finnish foreign-language (FL) teachers’ perceptions of teaching and study realities in their own FL classrooms. Communicative language teaching (CLT) is used as the teaching–studying–learning methodological framework of an international KIELO project (= the acronym for Finnish “kieltenopetus” meaning “language teaching”), whose online survey was used to collect data for this article. We aim at answering the following research question: What are the FL teachers’ main approaches to teaching and studying in Chilean and Finnish FL classrooms and what is the FL classroom teaching and study reality like in these two countries? The data were collected from 83 Chilean and 147 Finnish FL teachers through an online survey covering 15 key themes of CLT and including 115 Likert-scale statements and 8 open-ended questions. In the descriptive data analysis, both Chilean and Finnish FL teachers claim that they encourage their students to use the target language considerably and that they use communicative oral tasks. For both groups of participants, however, teacher-centeredness and use of textbook score relatively high. The two-cluster analysis revealed a context-dependent cluster and a context-independent cluster. Context-dependent teachers tended to favor communicative oral tasks, real-life tasks and their own language tasks, whereas context-independent teachers favored more non-communicative tasks. Context-dependent teachers proved more student-centered than context-independent teachers. For Chilean and Finnish research participants, the use of mother tongue in foreign language classrooms appears to be an issue despite the growing need of foreign language communication.
Mansoor Ahmed Channa, Abdul Malik Abassi, Zaimuariffudin Shukri Nordin, Jam Khan Muhammad and Rubina Shaheen Arain
The main aim of this research was to investigate metacognitive strategies through reading comprehension practice by first year students of engineering departments. The students of four engineering departments were selected as the participants in this research work. The qualitative instrument based on focus group interview was used for collecting data from first year students of four engineering departments to know the perceptions and their needs to develop reading comprehension through metacognitive strategies. The researchers developed interview questions for this study. These questions were validated by two experts of faculty of cognitive science and human development at university Malaysia Sarawak. The researchers obtained permission from the chairmen of four departments at a university in Pakistan. Almost 8 groups consisting of 5 informants in each participated in this research. The data was documented by using audio-tape; NVivo software, version 8 was used to organize data for obtaining main themes of the study. This research generated the most important themes for the interpretation of the results. The study contributed the most promising results which revealed that more than half of these groups used metacognitive strategies in classroom reading practice while less than half of groups did not use strategies and remained poor in reading comprehension. This research suggested administrators, teachers, and curriculum designers to design and implement reading comprehension courses and syllabus for first year engineering students.
Osenweugwor Ngozi Aihie and Martins Noyosase Igbineweka
This study investigated the differential efficacy of Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), Systematic Desensitization (SD) and Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) in reducing the test anxiety status of undergraduates in a Nigerian University. To guide the study two research questions were raised and two corresponding hypotheses formulated. The study, a pre-test, post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experiment adopted a 3x2x2 factorial design. A sample of one hundred and twentythree undergraduate students in a Nigerian University participated in the study. A twenty-item Test Anxiety Inventory adapted from Spielberger (1980) was revalidated and administered to the sample to collect data for the study. The internal consistency of the instrument had a Crombach’s alpha value of 0.82. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Variance statistics and the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The results revealed statistically significant decreases in test anxiety of participants in two of the treatment groups – Systematic Desensitization and Solution Focused Brief Therapy. The effectiveness of the two treatments on test anxiety was found to be independent of gender of the participants. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy had no statistically significant effect on the test anxiety of the participants. It was concluded that Systematic Desensitization and Solution Focused Brief Therapy are effective methods of reducing test anxiety in learners. Based on the results, recommendations were made.
Ngemunang Agnes Ngale Lyonga
This study examined the impact of head teachers’ instructional supervision practices on teachers’ performances in selected primary schools in Konye Sub-Division in Cameroon. The study used a descriptive survey design to explain the impact of head teachers’ classrooms visits and checking of teaching log-books (records) on teachers’ job performances. The sample size was made up of six head teachers and twenty-eight teachers selected from six schools from Konye Sub-Division, which included two state own, two confessional, and two lay private schools. A five section questionnaire was developed to collect data on head teachers’ and teachers. The questionnaire was administered during one of the researcher’s contact visits at the institutions. The researcher explained to the respondents who filled out the information on the questionnaire and returned after completion. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for descriptive statistics that included the use of frequencies and percentages. Findings among others revealed the aspects that influence teachers’ performances during instructional supervision by head teachers was not only classroom visits but also observation of teaching (82% and 83.3%), examination of teaching and learning methods used by teachers during supervision (71.4% and 66.6%), regularly checking of records of work covered by teachers (92.9% and 83.3%), regularly checking and correcting of teachers’ lesson plans (89.3% and 100%), and holding sessions with teachers to guide on how to improve teaching and learning activities in primary schools.
Saxhide Mustafa, Fatos Berani and Hajdin Berisha
Organizations and managers during their organizational activities, not rarely face different conflicts. Managers, depending on their gender, use different ways to resolve these conflicts while this reflects on their subordinates. The purpose of this study is to analyse the most common approaches applied to resolve conflicts in organizations in Kosovo and the impact of gender on the choice of style to handle conflicts. The study employs a quantitative approach whilst convenience sampling method is used for the purpose of selecting respondents. The study is conducted in ten largest companies in Kosovo in which hundred employees and fifty managers were included. A structured questionnaire is used to collect primary data and necessary tests were conducted through SPSS. Results reveal that managers use the integrative style more than other styles during the conflict management process; gender partially affects the choice of the style and the style of conflict management affects the likelihood of managers among employees. The study suggests that the field of conflict management among organizations in Kosovo needs more academic research.