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Krzysztof Treder, Włodzimierz Przewodowski and Agnieszka Barnyk

Factors influencing detection of Potato Leafroll Virus and Potato Virus Y in potato tuber extracts

Detection of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) directly in potato tubers has been influenced by several factors. The most important were: the place of tuber sampling, preincubation of tuber sap before loading into wells of microplate and duration of tubers storage after collecting from field. The concentration of both viruses was highest in the heel part of tubers, whenever tested. Preincubation of tuber sap for several hours improved true/false signal ratio for dormant tubers and enabled reliable detection of both viruses. However after natural dormancy breaking it was necessary to change Cocktail-ELISA procedure to obtain reliable results, consistent with DAS-ELISA on leaves. The sap was not preincubated but loaded into wells directly after sample collecting and immuno-enzymatic reaction was developed overnight in refrigerator.

Open access

Jarosław Przetakiewicz

Abstract

Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute - National Research Institute (IHAR-PIB) is responsible for pathotype identification of Synchytrium endobioticum isolates collecting from Poland. Pathogenicity tests are carried out using the Glynne-Lemmerzahl method, according to EPPO Standard PM 7/28. Pathotypes are defined based on their reaction to a range of well-characterized differential cultivars of potato. Assessment of one isolate of the fungus requires more than 20 differential cultivars. All pathotypes of S. endobioticum from Polish reference collection are multiplied and maintained (fresh warts) on tubers of extremely susceptible cultivars continuously. For all references pathotypes and isolates of S. endobioticum, the compost with winter sporangia are prepared for long-term of maintenance.

Open access

J. Hlava and A. Hlavová

Abstract

Molluscan diversity in selected Protected Landscape Areas (PLA) of Bohemia (Czech Republic) was monitored. For the study, the small-scale PLAs of the Slavkovský Les, the Blanský Les, and the Labské Pískovce were selected. Over 12 500 specimens in total representing 62 mollusc species were found within 2012-2013 by means of hand collecting and sieving the litter layer. To evaluate similarity among the localities, the Jaccard and Sörensen’s indices were calculated. The significance of such data is mainly in their presentation in the available resources such as peer-reviewed scientific journals

Open access

Reza Rostami and Korous Khoshbakht

Abstract

Collecting information about crop wild relatives (CWRs) as vital genetic resources for food security is the first stage of monitoring them. In this study, which was conducted in a protected area, we surveyed the conservation status of CWR sand, and the interaction between the condition of these plants and their local use. From 338 plant species in the area, 179 crop wild relatives in 38 families were identified. None of them is threatened, but some endemic rare or vulnerable plants such as Alkanna frigida Boiss. could cause some anxiety. Among these species 19 species of CWRs have edible usage in this area. Harvesting the crop wild relatives from nature by the local people is seen as a conservative factor although this is not usually true of other species.

Open access

J. Hlava and A. Hlavová

Abstract

The molluscan diversity in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (PLA) (Moravia, Czech Republic) was studied. The PLA stretches on the territory of a river alluvial plain and is formed by the meandering river, complex of alluvial forests, meadows, and wetlands. It is part of the European network of nature protection areas Natura 2000. Altogether 10 450 specimens representing 107 mollusc species were found by means of hand collecting and sieving a litter layer during the sampling period April 2012–September 2015 at nine selected sampling sites. Computation of the Jaccard and Sörensen indices showed the degree of similarity between the individual locations based on the number of shared species. The principal component analysis based on known ecological characteristics clearly distinguished some locations and indicated the relationships between a particular molluscan group and a locality. The data availability and possibility to assess the succession over time is essential for later evaluation and mapping the natural processes or human impact at naturally important localities.

Open access

Roman Konečný, Jan Trávníček, Lucie Hasoňová, Jan Plicka, Vlasta Kroupová, Martina Staňková and Zdeněk Peksa

alginate administration to enhance the non-specific immune responses, and disease resistance of the juvenile grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Aquaculture 277: 66-72. Písek L, Kroupová V, Trávníček J, Maurer S (2006): Influence of immunomodulator elomacro on number of leukocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophils in sheep. Collect Sci Pap Fac Agric České Budějovice 23: 43-48. Rodinová H, Kroupová V, Trávníček J, Gradl T (2006): Impact of immunostimulation preparation elo-macro on plasma proteins in ovines. Collect

Open access

Fereshteh Vali Sichani, Masoud Bahar and Leila Zirak

Abstract

Several annual field crops, vegetables, ornamentals, oilseed crops, and weeds showing phytoplasma diseases symptoms were collected to detect phytoplasmas related to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’. The collecting was done in the central regions of Iran. For general detection of phytoplasmas, 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using phytoplasma universal primer pair P1/P7 in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by primer pair R16F2n/R16R2 in nested PCR. Then, for finer detection of phytoplasmas related to ‘Ca. P. asteris’, DNA samples were used to extend the rp and tuf gene fragments by PCR using aster yellows group specific primer pairs rp(I)F1A/rp(I)R1A and fTufAy/rTufAy, respectively. Restriction fragment lenght polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rp gene fragments using digestion with AluI, MseI, and Tsp509I restriction enzymes indicated that aster yellows group related phytoplasmas in these Iranian regions, belong to rpI-B subgroups. Sequence analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rp genes from representative phytoplasma isolates confirmed the RFLP results. This research is the first report of annual plants infected with phytoplasmas related to subgroup rpI-B in Iran.

Open access

Sunday Oluwafemi, G. Thottappilly and Matthew Alegbejo

Search for Variability among Mastreviruses Showing Symptoms of Maize Streak Virus from Different Regions of Nigeria by Polymerase Chain Reactions

Field surveys were undertaken in 1997-1999 across five ecological zones in Nigeria to collect grass species showing symptoms of Maize streak virus (MSV) (Genus Mastrevirus: Family Geminiviridae). Apart from maize (Zea mays L.), 15 grass species were found with symptoms similar to MSV. These hosts showed two types of symptoms viz: mild or severe. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocapture IC-PCR were used to diagnose the mastreviruse. Variation among the isolates is illustrated in relationship dendograms. The PCR dendogram showed 35-85% variation among the isolates while the IC-PCR dendogram showed 55-85%. The PCR dendogram clusters the isolates essentially along symptom severity. Isolates that were most distantly related to a standard MSV strain showed mild symptoms in their grass hosts. Simple PCR protocols could help in studying diversity among grass Mastreviruses where facilities for genome sequencing are not available.

Open access

Katarzyna Nowaczyk, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Magdalena Gawlak, Paweł Olejarski and Jan Nawrot

The RAPD Analysis of Genetic Variability in the Granary Weevil (Sitophilus Granarius L.) Populations

Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) belongs to primary stored-product pests and causes extensive economical losses by reducing quantity and quality of the grain and wheat products. The morphological diversity within each of three most common weevil species: S. granarius, S. oryzae and S. zeamais is high. All three species can also feed on different types of grain.

The aim of our study was to check the range of molecular diversity between ten populations of S. granarius derived from different sources in Poland, Europe and USA and to compare results with those obtained for some populations of S. oryzae and S. zeamais. For phylogenetic analysis we applied the RAPD technique, which provides DNA markers dispersed throughout the whole genome and are easy to collect and analyse. The phylogenetic analysis of obtained results revealed the high similarity between all populations of granary weevil, European as well as American ones and, simultaneously, considerable diversity between granary weevil and rice and maize weevils.

Open access

Mariola Głazek

Occurrence of Eyespot on Winter Wheat in the Central-Southern Region of Poland

Eyespot is one of the most important diseases of economical significance in wheat production in the regions of Śląskie and Opolskie voivodeships where it presents a permanent problem. The aim of performed experiment was to collect data on the occurrence and characteristics of Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis strains in these regions in the years 2003-2008, and to perform their taxonomic characterization. The studies originated as an attempt to find the explanation of processes related to winter wheat infection by casual agents of this disease in the Śląskie and Opolskie Provinces.