growth of balsam poplar. Silvae Genet. 35: 129-131. FEGE, A. S. (1983): The practice and physiological basis of collecting, storing, and planting Populus hardwood cuttings, pp. 1-11. In: USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-91. FEGE, A. S. and G. N. BROWN (1984): Carbohydrate distribution in dormant Populus shoots and hardwood cuttings. For. Sci. 30: 999-1010. GILMORE, A. R. (1976): The effects of planting methods on survival of cottonwood seedlings. Tree Plant. Not. 27: 9&20. HAISSIG, B. E., T. D
N. Colpaert, S. Cavers, E. Bandou, H. Caron, G. Gheysen and A. J. Lowe
The number of studies of tropical tree species that use molecular tools is increasing, most of which collect leaf tissue for genomic DNA extraction. In tropical trees the canopy is not only frequently inaccessible, but also, once reached, the leaf tissue is often heavily defended against herbivory by high concentrations of anti-predation compounds, which may inhibit downstream applications, particularly PCR. Cambium tissue, accessed directly from the tree trunk at ground level, offers a readily accessible resource that is less hampered by the presence of defensive chemicals than leaf tissue. Here we describe a simple method for obtaining tissue from the cambial zone for DNA extraction and test the applicability of the method in a range of tropical tree species. The method was used successfully to extract DNA from 11 species in nine families. A subset of the DNA extracts was tested in more detail and proved to be highly suitable for AFLP analysis.
R. O. Manoel, M. L. M. Freitas, E. Furlani Júniro, P. F. Alves, M. L. T. Moraes and A. M. Sebbenn
In this paper, we use six microsatellite loci to examine a spatially isolated population of Genipa americana in relation to mating system variation at the level of individual and among and within fruits, over two reproductive events. For our analysis, we sampled hierarchically among and within fruits open-pollinated seeds collected from 13 seed trees during the reproductive event in 2010 and 12 seed trees in 2011. The rate of mating among relatives (1-ts) was significantly greater than zero and different between the investigated reproductive events, indicating that some seeds are inbred. The estimate of fixation index (Fo) was significantly higher than zero for seeds from both reproductive events (2010: Fo = 0.258; 2011: Fo = 0.294), confirming that seeds present inbreeding, probably originated from mating among full-sibs. The multilocus paternity correlation within fruits (rp(w)) and among fruits (rp(a)) varied among seed trees and reproductive events. The rp(w) was significantly higher than rp(a) in both reproductive events, suggesting that it is more likely to find full-sibs within fruits (2010: 36.4%; 2011: 72.4%), than among fruits (2010: 18.9%; 2011: 12.8%). Due to the presence of inbreeding, mating among relatives and correlated mating, the within families coancestry coefficient (Θ) was higher and the variance effective size (Ne) lower than expected in open-pollinated families from panmictic populations (Θ = 0.125, Ne = 4). In practical terms for conservation programs, our results show the need to collect seeds from at least 60 seed trees to retain progeny arrays with a total effective size of 150.
Phototaxis in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) was investigated by subjecting fish to LED light traps (blue, green, yellow, orange, red, white) and control (total 13 traps). The trap was constructed of polyamide (PA) nylon monofilament (31.75 mm mesh size), fastened around two wire ring frames (∅ 490 mm) with a net height of 270 mm. A lamp was placed on the bottom of the trap. 96 individuals, consisting of 34 males and 62 females, were analysed. Both continuous and blinking light traps were considerably higher in the number of catch compared to the control. The body size of catch ranged from 76-135 mm TL and 8.00-55.00 g W. The mean YPUEs (yield per unit effort) for male and female were 4.00 ± 2.25 and 7.00 ± 4.50 g trap−1 trial-1, respectively. The CPUEs (catch per unit effort) for continuous, blinking light traps and the control ranged from 0.43 to 0.93, 0.21 to 0.86, and 0.21 fish trap−1night−1, respectively. The mean condition factor (K) values of 2.10 ± 0.40 for males and 2.13 ± 0.34 for females indicate fish with better condition. Positive group responses of fish were more pronounced in the middle size classes between 90 and 109 mm TL. Negative allometric growth pattern (b) (1.7271-1.8828) was observed, indicating that the culture system should be refined. A. testudineus showed positive phototaxis to the “colors of light”. In addition, efforts to collect climbing perch from the wild for breeding and commercial purposes may benefit from this study.
Y. H. Weng
Deployment of improved black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) seedlots in New Brunswick (NB) is a standard silvicultural practice. Most plantations have been established using elite-stand seedlots in the 1980s, first-generation seedling seed orchard seedlots in the 1990s and thereafter second-generation clonal seed orchard seedlots. A large-plot realized gain test was established at six sites in NB to provide estimates of actual gains from planting these improved seedlots. The test compared four improved seedlots, representing seedlots collecting from an elite stand, a first-generation seed orchard, two second-generation orchards and a mix of eight elite full-sib families identified in second-generation testing populations, with one unimproved checklot. This paper presents height measurements taken on trees at age 5. Results indicate that realized genetic gains from two-cycle selection and breeding are reasonably high and, in general, the more improved the seedlot, the higher the gain. Planting the elite-stand or the first-generation orchard seedlot would produce a gain of about 10% (relative to the checklot) in 5-yr height and an additional 5.8% gain could be obtained from planting the second-generation orchard seedlot. Even higher gain could be obtained via the deployment of the elite full-sib families, which was estimated to be about 8.6% more than the deployment of the second-generation orchard seedlot. While the realized gain varied with site, the ranking of gain achieved for the different seedlots was similar between sites. The above information was further used to optimize testing efforts for realized gain tests. To detect a typical gain of 5 to 10% at a significance level of 0.05 with a predetermined power of 0.80, each test should include 5 to 10 blocks per site (the number of sites is fixed at 4) or 4 to 6 sites (the number of blocks per site is fixed at 6) paired with planting 36 to 49 trees per plot. These approximate numbers of sites and blocks per site should be modified, depending on the interactions of seedlot with site and with block within site.
G. R. Dickinson, H. M. Wallace and D. J. Lee
cuttings. Tree and Forestry Science nd Biotechnology 2: 26-33. TIBBITS, W. N. (1989): Controlled pollination studies with shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens (DEAN and MAIDEN) Maiden). Australian Forestry 62: 111-126. VAN WYK, G. (1977): Pollen handling, controlled pollination and grafting of Eucalyptus grandis. South African Forestry Journal 101: 47-53. WALLACE H. M. and S. J. TRUEMAN (1995): Dispersal of Eucalyptus torelliana seeds by the resin-collecting stingless bee, Trigona carbonaria. Oecologia 104: 12
B. Kovacevic, V. Guzina, M. Kraljevic-Balalic, M. Ivanovic and E. Nikolić-Đorić
variance and “C” effects in balsam poplar rooting. Silvae Genetica 38: 62-65. FEGE, A. S. (1983): The practice and physiological basis of collecting, storing and planting Populus hardwood cuttings. Gen. Tech. Report. NC-91. FEGE, A. S. and G. N. BROWN (1984): Carbohydrate distribution in dormant populus shoot and hardwood cuttings. Forest Science 30: 999-1010. HAN, K. H., H. D. JR. BRADSHAW, M. P. GORDON and K. H. HAN (1994): Adventitious root and shoot regeneration in vitro is under major gene control in an F2 family of
O. M. Aliyu and J. A. Awopetu
(1973): Numerical taxonomy: The principles and practice of numerical classification. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Fransisco. SOKAL, R. R. and P. H. A. SNEATH (1963): Principle of Numerical Taxonomy. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 350pp. SWAMY, K. R. M., L. THOYAJAKSHA and E.V.V. BHASKARA RAO (2002): Collecting cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) germplasm from forest plantations in Karnataka, India. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 132: 35-38. TOGUN, A. (1977): A review of the prospect of Cashew Industry in
Tomislav Treer and István Kubatov
2014, Campinas. Edições Leitura Crítica, p. 39. Schratwieser, J. (2014): Catchlog: an innovative approach for collecting recreational catch data. In: E. T. da Silva, A. L. Ferreira and Furlaneto M. (eds.), Program book of the 7 th World Recreational Fishing Conference on Change, transformation and adaptation in recreational fishing; 1-4 September 2014, Campinas. Edições Leitura Crítica, p. 83-84. Smederevac-Lalic, M., Pesic, R., Cvejic, S., Simonovic, P. (2012): Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of
A. H. Wiese, J. A. Zalesny, D. M. Donner and R. S. Zalesny
hybrid poplar clones. New For. 26: 17-32. EGGENS, J. L., E. C. LOUGHEED and R. J. HILTON (1972): Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Bolleana poplar. Can. J. Plant Sci. 52: 599-604. FARMER, R. E., JR. (1966): Rooting dormant cuttings of mature cottonwood. J. For. 64: 196-197. FARMER, R. E., JR., M. FREITAG and K. GARLICK (1989): Genetic variance and “C” effects in balsam poplar rooting. Silvae Genet. 38: 62-65. FEGE, A. S. (1983): The practice and physiological basis of collecting, storing, and planting