: Problems and solutions for collecting specimens. Psychology and Behavior 2007; 92(4): 583–90. 16. Takahashi Y, Tamakoshi H, Matsushima M, Kawabe T. Comparison of salivary sortisol, heart rate and oxygen saturation between early skin-to-skin contact with different initiation and duration times in healthy, full term infants. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87(3): 151–7. 17. Castro M, Elias PC, Martinelli CE Jr, Antonini SR, Santiago L, Moreira AC. Salivary cortisol as a tool for physiological studies and diagnostic strategies. Braz J Med Biol Res 2000; 33(10): 1171
Milica Ranković Janevski, Ana Đorđević Vujičić and Svjetlana Maglajić Đukić
Giuseppe Lippi and Janne Cadamuro
The preanalytical phase is crucial for assuring the quality of in vitro diagnostics. The leading aspects which contribute to enhance the vulnerability of this part of the total testing process include the lack of standardization of different practices for collecting, managing, transporting and processing biological specimens, the insufficient compliance with available guidelines and the still considerable number of preventable human errors. As in heavy industry, road traffic and aeronautics, technological advancement holds great promise for decreasing the risk of medical and diagnostic errors, thus including those occurring in the extra-analytical phases of the total testing process. The aim of this article is to discuss some potentially useful technological advances, which are not yet routine practice, but may be especially suited for improving the quality of the preanalytical phase in the future. These are mainly represented by introduction of needlewielding robotic phlebotomy devices, active blood tubes, drones for biological samples transportation, innovative approaches for detecting spurious hemolysis and preanalytical errors recording software products.
Nada Majkić-Singh and Zorica Šumarac
Quality Indicators of the Pre-Analytical Phase
Quality indicators are tools that allow the quantification of quality in each of the segments of health care in comparison with selected criteria. They can be defined as an objective measure used to assess the critical health care segments such as, for instance, patient safety, effectiveness, impartiality, timeliness, efficiency, etc. In laboratory medicine it is possible to develop quality indicators or the measure of feasibility for any stage of the total testing process. The total process or cycle of investigation has traditionally been separated into three phases, the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phase. Some authors also include a »pre-pre« and a »post-post« analytical phase, in a manner that allows to separate them from the activities of sample collection and transportation (pre-analytical phase) and reporting (post-analytical phase). In the year 2008 the IFCC formed within its Education and Management Division (EMD) a task force called Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety (WG-LEPS) with the aim of promoting the investigation of errors in laboratory data, collecting data and developing a strategy to improve patient safety. This task force came up with the Model of Quality Indicators (MQI) for the total testing process (TTP) including the pre-, intra- and post-analytical phases of work. The pre-analytical phase includes a set of procedures that are difficult to define because they take place at different locations and at different times. Errors that occur at this stage often become obvious later in the analytical and post-analytical phases. For these reasons the identification of quality indicators is necessary in order to avoid potential errors in all the steps of the pre-analytical phase.
Irena Korita, Anyla Bulo, Michel Langlois and Victor Blaton
M, Kozinski M, Kubica J. How do apolipoproteins ApoB and ApoA-I perform in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Journal of Medical Biochemistry 2011; 30: 237-243. 13. Bozzi G, Casolo F, Verna E, Repetto S, Castelfranco M, et al. Proposal of a standardized graphic system for collecting coronary angiographic data. Processing with a personal computer. G Ital Cardiol 1989 Jul; 19(7): 598-605. 14. Catapano A, et al. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. Atherosclerosis 2011; 217: 3-46. 15. Graham I
: 1673-9. Lieber MM. Renal oncocytoma: prognosis and treatment. Eur Urol 1990; 18: 17-21. Zerban H, Nogueira E, Riedasch G, Bannasch P. Renal oncocytoma: origin from the collecting duct. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 1987; 52: 375-87. Morra MN, Das S. Renal oncocytoma: a review of histogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. J Urol 1993; 150: 295-302. Shomori K, Nagashima Y, Kuroda N, Honjo A, Tsukamoto Y, Tokuyasu N, et al. ARPP protein is
Mirjana Đukić, Milica Ninković and Marina Jovanović
, Jacobson HR, Koland TD, Capdevila JH, Falck JR, Breyer MD. 5,6-EET inhibits ion transport in collecting duct by stimulating endogenous prostaglandin synthesis. Am J Physiol 1995; 268 (5 Pt 2): F931-F939. Chan HW-S. Coxon DT. Lipid hydroperox ides. In: Chan HW-S. ed. Autoxidation of Unsaturated Lipids. Orlando. FL: Academic Press. 1987; 17-50. Morrow JD, Hill KE, Burk RF, Nammour TM, Badr KF, Roberts LJ II. A series of prostaglandin F2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase. free
Wei Zhang, Junlei Chen, Xinxia Li, Yuwen Wang and Jiutong Li
. The presence of H-FABP is detected with the appearance of a red T-line on the nitrocellulose membrane. Unlike existing immunochromatographic assays that detect the coating or labeling fluorescence, colloidal gold, or capture antibodies, this background fluorescence quenching immunochromatographic assay takes advantage of background fluorescein signal on the NC membrane and collects the total fluorescence signal at the C-line, as quality control, and at the T-line. The method is sensitive enough to detect any fluctuation in fluorescence intensity compared with the
R. S. Zalesny and A. H. Wiese
growth of balsam poplar. Silvae Genet. 35: 129-131. FEGE, A. S. (1983): The practice and physiological basis of collecting, storing, and planting Populus hardwood cuttings, pp. 1-11. In: USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-91. FEGE, A. S. and G. N. BROWN (1984): Carbohydrate distribution in dormant Populus shoots and hardwood cuttings. For. Sci. 30: 999-1010. GILMORE, A. R. (1976): The effects of planting methods on survival of cottonwood seedlings. Tree Plant. Not. 27: 9&20. HAISSIG, B. E., T. D
N. Colpaert, S. Cavers, E. Bandou, H. Caron, G. Gheysen and A. J. Lowe
The number of studies of tropical tree species that use molecular tools is increasing, most of which collect leaf tissue for genomic DNA extraction. In tropical trees the canopy is not only frequently inaccessible, but also, once reached, the leaf tissue is often heavily defended against herbivory by high concentrations of anti-predation compounds, which may inhibit downstream applications, particularly PCR. Cambium tissue, accessed directly from the tree trunk at ground level, offers a readily accessible resource that is less hampered by the presence of defensive chemicals than leaf tissue. Here we describe a simple method for obtaining tissue from the cambial zone for DNA extraction and test the applicability of the method in a range of tropical tree species. The method was used successfully to extract DNA from 11 species in nine families. A subset of the DNA extracts was tested in more detail and proved to be highly suitable for AFLP analysis.
G. Daniel-Igwe and N. Okwara
One hundred (50 males and 50 females) B-not strain indigenous turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo, were used to determine the reference values for their haematological parameters. The turkeys were housed in the poultry unit and jugular venepunctures were used to collect their blood. The haematological parameters were determined using standard procedures. The mean values of: the packed cell volume (PCV; 37.29 ± 0.37 %), red blood cell (RBC) counts (2.50 ± 0.44 × 106.µl−1), haemoglobin concentration (Hbc; 10.89 ± 0.34 g.dl−1), mean corpuscular volume (MCV; 150.63 ± 0.73 fl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH; 44.29 ± 1.78 pg), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC; 29.10 ± 0.73 g.dl−1), and white blood cell (WBC) counts (12.41 ± 0.83 × 103 µl−1) were determined. No significant differences were found between the male and female B-not strain turkeys in this study. The results will help in the interpretation of cases of disease when there are variations in the values and serve as baseline data for B-not strain of turkeys in the humid tropics.