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Open access

The Archived Website and Website Philology

A New Type of Historical Document?

Niels Brügger

Abstract

Website history can be considered an emerging discipline at the intersection between media history and Internet history. In this discipline, the individual website is regarded as the unifying entity of the historical analysis rather than the Internet or the Web. Writing the history of a website involves using many sources and methods similar to those used in writing the history of any other media type. But one document type requires special attention: the archived website. This is so because the problems involved in finding, collecting and preserving the website are different from those characterizing the archiving of other types of traces of human activity, including other media types. The primary problem is that the actual act of finding, collecting and preserving changes the website that was on the live web in a number of ways, thus creating a unique version of it and not simply a copy. The present article sets out, first, to discuss to what extent the archived website can be considered a new type of historical document and how its characteristics affect the task of the website historian who must later use it; second, the article discusses and attempts to formulate some methodological principles, rules and recommendations for a future critical textual philology of the website.

Open access

A Gap in Networked Publics?

A Comparison of Younger and Older Journalists’ Newsgathering Practices on Social Media

Petter Bae Brandtzaeg and María Ángeles Chaparro Domínguez

Abstract

Several recent studies have examined how professional journalists use social media at work. However, we know little about the differences between younger and older journalists’ use of social media for newsgathering. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews comparing eight young journalists (median age = 24) with eight older journalists (median age = 50) in Norway. The younger journalists reported using multiple social media platforms, such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Instagram, to collect politically significant information, news observations, sources and comments. By comparison, the older journalists reported relying heavily on elite sources on Twitter. This reluctance to use a variety of social media platforms may limit older journalists’ exposure to a variety of news sources. As a result, younger journalists seem to follow a more multi-perspectival approach to social media and may be more innovative in their newsgathering. Hence, younger journalists may be exposed to more diverse types of news sources than older journalists. Together, the findings indicate a generational gap in ‘networked publics’ concerning how younger and older journalists approach newsgathering in social media.

Open access

Judit Pieldner

Immediacy. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Film and Media Studies vol. 1: 47-68. Sobchack, Vivian. 1999. Toward a Phenomenology of Nonfictional Film Experience. In Collecting Visible Evidence, ed. Michael Renov and Jane Gaines, 241-254. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Sobchack, Vivian. 2004. The Charge of the Real: Embodied Knowledge and Cinematic Consciousness. In Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture, 258-285. Berkeley - Los Angeles - London: University of California Press. Wees, William C. 1993

Open access

The International Freedom of Information Index

A Watchdog of Transparency in Practice

Johan Lidberg

Sigmund, Splichal (2000) Freedom of Information in the Information Age . Iowa State University Press. Denzin, Norman K and Lincoln, Yvonna S, (ed.) (2003) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials (2 nd ed.) Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Dunn, Delmer, Uhr, John (1993) ‘Accountability and Responsibility in Modern Democratic Governments’, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Washington DC. Falck, Marie-Louise (2004) ‘E-Mail Reply No of Employees in Swedish Cabinet’, E-mail to author, 5 April. Freedom of

Open access

Henry Mainsah

Society. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Christiansen, C. (2004) ‘News Media Consumption among Immigrants in Europe: The Relevance of Diaspora’, Ethnicities , 4; 185. Cohen, R. (1997) Global Diasporas . London: Routledge. Dalen, M. (2004) Intervju som Forskningsmetode: en Kvalitativ Tilnærming . Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (eds.) (1998) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials . Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA. Drotner, K. (1998) ‘Mediated Memories: Radio, Film and the Formation of Young Women

Open access

Jan Pišna

Abstract

The article deals with the book collection of Jiří Ribay, the structure of his ownership notes (on the title page in the form of ‘Jiřího Ribay’, the year of purchase and the price), extant book catalogues from 1800 and 1803, and the copies preserved in institutional libraries in Europe. It has been shown on specific examples how Ribay acquired his books and how he sold some of the books still in his lifetime (e.g. to Mikuláš Jankovič in 1807). Research into archival documents has revealed some new information on how the former National and University Library in Prague acquired a part of Ribay’s books in 1857. The end of the paper outlines the potential use of a complete edition and a new treatment of Ribay’s catalogues for the history of book culture, retrospective bibliography and literary history.

Open access

Petr Mašek

Abstract

The core of the Višňová castle library was formed already in the 17th century, probably in Paderborn. Afew volumes come from the property of the archbishop of Cologne, Ferdinand August von Spiegel (1774–1835), but most of the items were collected by his brother Franz Wilhelm (1752–1815), a minister of the Electorate of Cologne, chief construction officer and the president of the Academic Council in Cologne. A significant group is formed by philosophical works: Franz Wilhelm’s collection comprised works by J. G. Herder, I. Kant, M. Mendelsohn as well as H. de Saint-Simon and J. von Sonnenfels. Another group consisted of historical works, e.g. by E. Gibbon; likewise his interest in the history of Christianity is noticeable. The library contains a total of more than 6,200 volumes, including 40 manuscripts, 3 incunabula and 15 printed books from 16th century; more than a half of the collection is formed by early printed books until the end of the 18th century. The other volumes come from the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Volumes from the 17th century include especially Latin printed books on law, and one can perceive interest in collecting books on philosophy. There are many publications devoted to Westphalia; in addition, the library contains a number of binder’s volumes of legal dissertations from the end of the 17th century and the entire 18th century published in diverse German university towns. Further disciplines widely represented in the library are economics and especially agriculture, with the publications coming from the 18th and 19th centuries.